Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Management Future: Water Management

Corporate water management: Risk for corporations – Opportunity for consultancy services Student Number: 440008 University of Portsmouth word count: 2646 (excluded figures, table of contents, references and executive summary) â€Å"This is to verify that this is my own work and that it has not been used in part in the assessment of other units in my degree† *********************** Executive summary: Water scarcity will be a vital resource for business in the future. In a report in 2008, it is indicated that water imports to UK accounted for 62% virtual water consumption [ (Chapagain & Stuart, 2008) ].It is predicted that the usage of water in agriculture will rise 30% in 2025 [ (Black, 2010) ] and water availability per capita has reduced by 5 times compare to statistic in 1950 [ (UNDP) ]. In correlation with the decrease in water supply, there has been significant increase in social concerns and customer attitudes toward environmental problems [ (Top of Mind Survey , 2010) ]. The water impacts on individuals, corporations, and communities have been realized and increasingly concern about over the same period.Water footprints, water supply-managements are identifiable practices which are introduced for public and private sectors [ (WWF, 2009; IBM, 2008) ]. However, despite the impacts of water issues, the business responses to the problems have been considerably weak [ (Barton, 2010) ]. At the same time, consultancy market has been indicated as a potential field of investment (Appendix 4). Triangulation of trends data suggests a potential market for consultancy service of water management.The article highlighted the business opportunities and profitability that it could bring which include: better knowledge of water supply chain to reduce environmental impact which is an essential value for business, understanding of water footprints practices hence improving CSR. It also proposed the main competitive advantages as low capital requirements and uniqueness of the services. However, it is predicted to have a reducing market share for the future. Low barrier of entries and the shortage in human-resource might be the main ressures. In order to examine this business opportunities, different sets of strategic and market analytical frameworks have been exercised aligning with discussion throughout the article. Contents 1 – Introduction:4 2 – Methodology4 3 – Trends data related to Water management5 3. 1 – Water – a scarce resource5 3. 2 – Escalating concern for social responsibility7 4 – Connections between trends8 5 – Future prediction8 5. 1 – Water scarcity – a worsening trend8 5. 2 – Demand for CSR trend10 6 – Opportunity evaluation and justification 11 – Conclusion12 References13 Appendices16 Appendix 1: Water stress map and Population density16 Appendix 2: Water and Water footprint17 Appendix 3: Opinion survey on climate changes (ONS, 2010)18 Appendix 4: Business Opportunity analysis20 1 – Introduction: Companies have been focused on â€Å"green washing† their images with environmental activities concern with fossil fuels, emission, carbon footprints, etc. But another major subject has been long omitted in this area however is water and water usage throughout the supply chain of the business.It is critical to understand that consumptions of goods and services play tremendous role in water preservation on a global scale [ (Ercin, Aldaya, & Hoekstra, 2009) ]. For the equality and sustainability in the future growth, better knowledge and insights to water management are required for businesses in order to achieve its CSR goals. Environmental consultancy services and business advisories, with timely response can play a proactive part in encouraging, promoting, and providing water management services for businesses in the near future.The service will focus on aligning economic growth of sustainabilit y with water preservation and other related-environmental problems in the business. The consultancy can also provide traceability service and educate traceability managers [ (Wylie, 2010) ] who can examines global supply chain through imports, exports, setting water standards, water footprint reporting, etc. The potential customers are massively wide-ranged from private companies to multinational companies as well as government and non-government agencies. Justification of business opportunity will be carried out in the last section along with the conclusion.The next section will briefly describe the research methodology of the study and key trends related. 2 – Methodology For this project, secondary data is used as the main source. Chris defined secondary sources as data which has been collected previously and reported by other people (2005). The secondary data are fact and figures from different environmental electronic source including United Nation (UN) website, Water Foo tprint Network (WFN) website and Office of National Statistic (ONS) website. Data about water footprint, CSR is from professional reports, and journal articles.Statistical and qualitative data gathered is the vital foundation to discussions of the business and triangulation of trends and figures. In fact, the major advantage of secondary data is its readiness for collection, extensive amount of empirical research are available in qualitative and quantitative forms from various sources. Secondary data are decoded and explained so that they are understandable and easy to read [ (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009, pp. 195 – 200) ]. Secondly, it is inexpensive with information which cannot be easily obtained individually.However, limitations of secondary data are also considered. Secondary data are collected and analyzed for different purposes and therefore general and irrelevant to the topic of the project. Furthermore, data used in the research are collected variably thus its quality and reliability must be questioned [ (Francis & Wesley, 1963) ]. Primary data collection could be useful but will be costly and time-consuming for the project [ (Chris, 2005, p. 107) ]. Appendices provided statistics related to water footprint, opinion survey about climate change and other water-related data. Some of the figures and table will be irectly put into the content of the article for better explanation to viewer. There are a lot of strategic and marketing analytical frameworks have been used which are PESTEL analysis, Porter’s five forces, Longenecker’s opportunity recognition criteria (Appendix 4). 3 – Trends data related to Water management There are two main trends which are connected and interrelated to the business opportunity. There are also sub-trends discussed within each of the category to further analysis. 3. 1 – Water – a scarce resource â€Å"The Earth cannot withstand a systematic increase of material things. If we grow by using more stuff, I'm afraid we'd better start looking for a new planet. † (Spoken by Robert Shapiro) a) Water shortage Nowadays, problems with water have been a rising controversy for humanity. World usages of water have been quadrupled to 4000 km3 per years while population has growth 3 times in 60 years (figure 1). Major contribution for the increase is agriculture and a growing figure on industry and municipal water use. Figure 1: Estimated Annual water use of the world [ (Kirby, 2004) ] According to UN estimates, more than half of the world's population now lives in cities [ (BBC News, 2008) ].Population density map (Appendix 1) of UK shows an inextricable link of urban areas with water stress map (Appendix 2. 4). World supply of portable water declines, the density of population in urbanized area increases the inefficiency of water supplies and continuingly enlarges water problems [ (Cetron ;amp; Davis, 2008) ]. Human activities include industry, domestic u se, etc which could affect the water supply as well as other trends such as globalization and industrialization. [ (International Year of Fresh Water 2003) ] b) Water management – UK Case The amount of water used to produce food and goods imported by developed countries such as UK is worsening water shortages in the developing world† (Black, 2010) In the case of UK, import goods from other countries are contributing to the water shortage in other nations. According to Chapagain ;amp; Stuart (2008), 62% of the total water in the UK is accounted for by water from other countries, while 38% is used from domestic water resources (Appendix 2. 1) Previous data shows that water consumed by UK residents are averagely 152 litres per days from 1995 to 2008(Appendix 2. ). Nevertheless, the amount of water indirectly embedded in consumption are massively larger. Embedded water in 1kg of beef are 15000 litres while 1 chunk of cheese are 2500 litres; hence with this calculation UK co nsumers only see 3% of water usages they are accountable for (Black, 2010). From 1995 to 2001, 70% of water source are from import goods while 30% water of UK usage are self-generated (Appendix 2. 2). With the increasing trend of usage of importing water, water exhaustion will occur for the rest of the world. 3. 2 – Escalating concern for social responsibility ) Demand for social responsibility from customers and society. Consumers and society are growingly concern about climate and environmental issues. In an opinion survey of ONS, the number of UK residents who are worried about climate changes and environment is over 80% constantly from 2006 to 2009, 30% of people seriously concern about environmental problems (Appendix 3. 3). Nevertheless, the percentage believes environmental impacts to be top three priorities declined from 2007 to 2009 of 9% (Appendix 3. 1). This may due to a recession which introduced major economic problems during the period thus shifted societyâ€⠄¢s attention.On the other hand, 82% of respondents are ready to change their behaviour to reduce climate change’s consequences (Appendix 3. 3). b) Water CSR: responses for Business sustainability For businesses, CSR has been ranked 3rd in 2009 and 2nd in 2010 as concerning issues for consumer goods industry [ (Top of Mind Survey, 2010) ]. Friedman (2007) also identified in his article a strong link between good CSR and profitability of the firm. However, disclosures of corporate water performance from different sectors are surprisingly weak.From a benchmarking study of 100 companies [ (Barton, 2010) ] which examine water performance disclosure quality with a score range from 0 to 100 points, there is no company surpasses 43 points and the average highest score are achieved in mining sector with only 28 points (figure 2). Figure 2: Average score by sector of water disclosure quality from 100 companies [ (Barton, 2010) ] 4 – Connections between trends Water shortage and water-related stresses put corporations into potential problems. Recent reports of WWF and WFN (Or, Cartwight, ;amp; Tickner, 2008; Hoekstra A. Y. 2008) has identified four type of risk related to water issues that business could possibly face: * Physical risk: The shortage of water in the future will be a major problem for businesses. * Reputational risk: Disclosure, quality of disclosre, and other water CSR issues may be questioned by public thus damaging company’s image. * Regulatory risk: As water shortage is a global trend, government will introduce more strict policies and regulations on water resources. * Financial risk: The consequences of the above will be increase in cost/decrease in revenue. (Or, Cartwight, ;amp; Tickner, 2008)For CSR of water, Gerben – Leenes ;amp; Hoekstra, (2008) presented the â€Å"business water footprint† as total fresh water used directly and indirectly in a production process of a business. It categorized as 2 major type: ope rational water footprints which are water used directly in the operation and supply chain water footprint which are used indirectly. Barton, (2010) implies that reduction of water footprint should be part of business environment approach along with other methods like carbon footprints. International trade and business activities has a close link with local water depletion and pollution [ (Hoekstra ;amp; Chapagain, 2008, p. 8) ]. 5 – Future prediction 5. 1 – Water scarcity – a worsening trend â€Å"Forecasts suggest that when the world's population soars beyond 8bn in 20 years time, the global demand for food and energy will jump by 50%, with the need for fresh water rising by 30%. † [ (Black, 2010) ] Human activities especially agriculture will incessantly put pressures on water supply (figure 3). Climate change and population growth will burden agriculture to produce more which increase the demand for water while industry consumption of water will reduce as technology increases.Figure 3: projection of water usage in agriculture, industry and municipal Water availability is projected to keep a decrease for the future (Figure 3). Figure 3: Water availability per capita (UNDP) For a more depressing view, several projections illustrated that approximately 48 to 60 countries will face water scarcity by 2050 with at least 2 billion people in danger [ (UN-Water, 2010) ]. If the problem with water becomes critical globally, the UK development will also be influenced. Water imported to UK are majorly for agriculture products (Appendix 2. 2).The main source of water (virtual water ) in UK comes from imported goods and foods. 5. 2 – Demand for CSR trend Government in response to energy and environmental issues will impose strict regulations on corporate, industries will have more pressures for social responsibilities. Water responsibility should have a much wider-range of measurement and business should embrace a wider set of values to sustain economic growth in the future and prevent incoming water crisis. * Sustainability in future? Figure 4: risk over time associated with corporate water-related interventions. (WWF, 2009) ] In the time of government intervention and corporate responses to water-related issues and other mega-trends (Demographic shift, economic growth, and climate change), risks of water will decrease to a level that meet intervention level (figure 4). In fact, a sustainability future can be achieved with responsibilities shared for everyone [ (HMGovernment, 2005) ]. 6 – Opportunity evaluation and justification The growing concern of water scarcity and public interest in social responsibility are two main trends which will impose pressures to both policies makers and businesses.Pioneers with awareness to areas where water issues are most serious can express actual developments; and turn this to competitive advantage [ (Pegram, Or, & Williams, 2009) ]. However, in order to make clear a lignment between policies, water-based knowledge and corporate interests (shareholder values, profitability, CSR), there will be a gap for corporate water management developed whilst will encourage consultancy services. Water management consultancy service will have two main focuses: * Water footprints accounting practices for corporations Supply-chain water management The former will enhance business practices of CSR, assisting in building a green image for company and control, review efficiently and effectively the water supply-chain while the latter will analysis, evaluate and give advices to where business could improve its water supply chain. Both will be Unique Selling Points in consultant industry which other competitors do not have (auditors, financial advisors, etc). The uniqueness of the service and excellent quality will be main differentiations to competitors.There are insufficient data about market share and demand for consultant services presently; a primary data resea rch would be useful but the scope of this project does not allow. Nevertheless, the market demand are predicted to dramatically increase with the concerns about water-scarcity and social responsibility demand [ (Or, Cartwight, & Tickner, 2008) ]. Particularly, UK will require a wide range of knowledge about water supply-chain management. It is indicated via Porter’s five forces than 5 threats to this industry is considerably low (Appendix 4. 2) which can be explained by its service-nature and knowledge-based gaps.Nevertheless, in the long-term, demand for consultancy services could be decreased. Government regulations and business awareness increase [ (Barton, 2010) ] which may reduce water risks thus the need for consultant services will reduce. This will lead to the problem of sustainable profitability and development in the long-term of the business. Furthermore, reputation development will be crucial for consultant service to ensure quality, reliability and effectiven ess of the service provided. This is a long-term process which requires a lot of marketing and R&D funding.Another factor needs to be considered is financial side of the business. With small capital investment requirement, the investment in business is predicted to be low (estimation of ? 50. 000). With a small to medium-size enterprise which operates efficiently, business could have a payback time of 2 to 3 years and IRR rate amount to 10% cost of capital. However, what is critical is knowledge-based values (intangible assets), with the little people who can have water knowledge and corporate business knowledge about CSR and other consultancy areas combined.Training and Learning may be a problem for mid-long term development that business could possibly face. Last but not least, potentially large number of competitors could appear in the future. Demand for this knowledge gap of water will be filled with concerns about water crisis. IBM has run its program about water name †Å"smarter water management† to explore approaches to water management [ (IBM, 2008) ]. Master (Msc) course for water management has been introduced as part of education scheme for Unesco-IHI: Institute of water education [ (UNESCO, 2009) ].However this education development could as well turn into advantages when more water-managers are available to reduce bargaining power of suppliers. 7 – Conclusion In conclusion, with the water shortage as a predicted trend for humanity in the future and the demand for social responsibilities comes from society in which customers are the direct pressure. It is noticeable for firms and companies to have appropriate response to the problem in a global scale. Therefore, with the demand for water-management knowledge in the future, this would suggest that there is an unexplored field of water-consultant services for consultant industry.The uniqueness of the services provided by corporate water management package will be the main competit ive advantage for the companies as clients’ growingly concern for CSR. Low capital investment required, critical knowledge-based resources about water-management will contribute to the business success rate. However, the reduction in demand for the service in the future and reputation requirements will be the major issues that business may have to face in the long-term development. References Barton, B. (2010). Musky water?Corporate reporting on water risk: A benchmarking study of 100 companies. Ceres. BBC News. (2008, November 5). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from Growing Slums â€Å"face water crisis†: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7708120. stm Black, R. (2010, April 19). BBC. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from UK water use â€Å"worsening water crisis†: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/8628832. stm Cetron, M. J. , & Davis, O. (2008). 55 trends shaping tomorrow's world: Forcasts and implications for Business, Government and Consumers. Maryland: World fut ure society. Chapagain, A. , ;amp; Stuart, O. 2008). UK water footprint: the impact of the UK's food and fibre consumption on global water resources. WWF. Surrey: WWF. Chris, H. (2005). Doing your Master Dissertation. London: Sage Publications. Ercin, A. E. , Aldaya, M. M. , & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2009). A pilot in corporate water footprint accounting and impact assessment: The water footprint of a sugar-containing carbonated beverage. Delft: UNESCO-IHE: Institution for water education. Francis, R. J. , & Wesley, B. C. (1963). Research Methodology in Business (1st ed. ). New York: Harper y Brothers.Friedman, M. (2007). The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits. In Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance (pp. 173-178). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. HMGovernment. (2005). Sercuring the future: delivering UK sustainable development policies. Norwich: TSO. Hoekstra, A. Y. (2008). Water Neutral: Reducing and Offsetting the impacts of water footprints. Delft: UNE SCO – IHE: Institution for water education. Hoekstra, A. Y. , & Chapagain, A. K. (2008). Globalization of water: sharing the planet's freshwater resouces. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.IBM. (2008). Smarter Water management. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from IBM: http://www. ibm. com/smarterplanet/uk/en/water_management/ideas/index. html? re=sph International Year of Fresh Water 2003. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http://www. wateryear2003. org Kirby, A. (2004, October 19). BBC news. Retrieved April 22, 2010, from Water scarcity: A looming crisis? : http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3747724. stm (2008). Living Planet Report. Gland: WWF for a living planet. Longenecker, J. , Moore, C. , Palich, L. , ;amp; Petty, J. (2005).Small business management: an entrepreneurial emphasis. (13th, Ed. ) Ohio: Thomson South-western. ONS. (2010). Public attitude towards climate change and the Impact of Transport: 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 (January 2010 report). Office of Nati onal Statistic. Or, S. , Cartwight, A. , ;amp; Tickner, D. (2008). Understanding Water Risk – A primer on the consequenses of water scarity for government and business. WWF. Pegram, G. , Or, S. , ;amp; Williams, C. (2009). Investigating Shared Risk in Water: Corporate Engagement with Public Policy Process. WWF. Rickman, C. D. (2005).The small Business Start up workbook: A step by step guide to starting the business you have dreamed of. Oxford: How to Content. Salina, I. (Director). (2008). Flow – For the love of Water [Motion Picture]. Saunders, M. , Lewis, P. , ;amp; Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for Business Students (5th ed. ). Essex: Peason Education Limited. (2010). Top of Mind Survey. Paris: The Consumer Good Forum. UNDP. (n. d. ). United Nation Development Development. Retrieved from http://www. undp. org/ UNESCO. (2009). Education of master in water management. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from UNESCO-ihe: http://www. nesco-ihe. org/Education/MSc-Programm es/MSc-in-Water-Management UN-Water. (2010). Retrieved April 23, 2010, from http://www. unwater. org/ WWF. (2009). Water Footprinting:Identifying and Addressing Water Risks in the Value Chain. WWF. Wylie, I. (2010, January 9th). Jobs of the Future. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from The Guardian: http://www. guardian. co. uk/money/2010/jan/09/jobs-of-the-future/print Appendices Appendix 1: Water stress map and Population density 1. 2 Population density in the UK Sources: ONS (2003) 1. 2 Water stress in regions of UK Sources: ONS (2003)Appendix 2: Water and Water footprint Consist of 3 figures: Water footprint in UK, Water footprint versus water scarcity, self-sufficiency and water import dependency. Domestic water consumption in UK 2. 1 Water footprint in UK (extracted from WFN, 2010) | Water footprint| Water footprint by consumption category| | Total| Per capita| Consumption of domestic water| Consumption of agricultural goods| Consumption of industrial goods| | | | Internal water foot print| Internal water footprint| External water footprint| Internal water footprint| External water footprint|   Measurement: m3/cap/yr |UK| 73. 07| 1245| 38| 218| 592| 114| 284| 2. 2. Water footprint versus water scarcity, self-sufficiency and water import dependency per country period 1997-2001 (Extracted from WFN, 2010) Country| Total renewable water resources| Internal water footprint| External water footprint| Total water footprint| Water scarcity| Water self-sufficiency| Water import dependency|   | 109 m3/yr| 109 m3/yr| 109 m3/yr| 109 m3/yr| %| %| %| UK| 147. 00| 21. 67| 51. 40| 73. 07| 50| 30| 70| .| | | | | | | | 2. 3. Domestic water consumption in UK (source: ONS)Appendix 3: Opinion survey on climate changes [ (ONS, 2010) ] 3. 1 Percentage considering climate change to be the most important/in top three most important issues facing Britain 3. 2 Attitude to climate change and behavior change for UK residents 3. 3 How concern you are to climate change and environmental i mpacts Appendix 4: Business Opportunity analysis This part will consist of 3 figures: water management future – PESTEL analysis, water management consultancy market – Porter’s five forces anaylysis, Longenecker’s opportunity evalution criteria 4. 1 Water management PESTEL analysis.Corporate water Management Future – PESTEL AnalysisPolitical * Privatization of water has been demonstrated as a threat to water supply with concerns about politics, pollution, human right to access water and the threat of monopolization of water (Salina, 2008). * Sustainability development policies has been developed since 2005 by UK government (HMGovernment, 2005) which shows concerns of government about future environmental problems * Political issues between parts of the world will indirectly affect the supply of water especially to poor people. â€Å"Water war† as a black swan but actually happened in Bolivia in 2000 (Salina, 2008)Economic * Cost of water will go up as the water supply decrease, unstable supply of water will * Import/export goods will play a major role for water management in the 21st century (Chapagain ;amp; Stuart, 2008). Water consumption of developed countries outmatched other regions which is a serious misallocation. * Specialization, outsourcing will have major impact on water supply and quality.Agriculture, industry increasingly pose negative effects on water (International Year of Fresh Water 2003) * Businesses increasingly concerns about corporate social responsibilitySocial * Access to freshwater is a growing concern for the society. 1. 2 billion people are suffering from water shortage in 2009 (Living Planet Report, 2008) * Sanitation of water is an apprehension as diseases related to water are increasing. Changing attitude of community about climate change and water shortage in the future will * Water users does not realize the real amount of water they using hence exercise shortage of responsibilities * Drou ght, water-related epidemic are wild-cardsTechnological * Government spending on management and water preservation research * New method of calculating virtual water: water footprint * Water preservation practices * Innovations in water allocation, water protection methodsBreakthrough in technology, innovative discovery of water management can be a wild cardEnvironmental * Pollution of water reduce availability of water supply for humanity, chemicals from industrial activities cannot be fully absorbed by water lead to many other problems with the ecosystems * Carbon emissions, global warming: â€Å"According to UN-Water’s reports (2010) Global warming will be the cause of rising salinity level of water, sea level increases by 5 to 88 cm compared to 1990 figures.Consequently, it is revealed that 20% of water scarcity is responsible by climate change. * Water living stocks are reducing as rivers, lakes, other water sources deplete. (Living Planet Report, 2008)Legislation * The right to access fresh and clean water: Large non-government organizations (WHO, UN) set up policies and declaration that water is a fundamental source to life and health which people have the right to access regardless economic circumstances. * Control over import/export goods: Water footprint regulations on corporations to estimate virtual water| 4. 2 Water management consultancy market – Porter analysis (Content in the next page) 4. Longenecker’s opportunity evaluation criteria [ (Longenecker, Moore, Palich, ;amp; Petty, 2005) ] Market factors * The consultancy service will be based on business need to manage water-sources, it must be clear that firms start to realize the important of Water-related CSR. * Technology available (water footprints) but not widely adopted * Knowledge gap (corporate water management, manage water supply chain) Competitive Advantage * The product or service delivered must surpass competitors in some key areas. * Unique service provider: Wa ter management for businesses, footprint accounting. * Deliver long-term value in CSR for clients. Economics The financial feasibility of the project and the ability to grow and being profitable needs to be examined. (Rickman, 2005) ] * Possibly a very large market (apply for all corporation, organizations, and companies) * Low initial costs, setup costs, flexible. Management Capacity * Low capital requirement, small amount of management requires * Could operate as small business type. * Investigation of government policies changes, collaboration with resource-protection, environmental organizations (WFN, UN). * Marketing strategy aims for big organizations first then small and medium enterprises. Fatal Flaws * Business perception for CSR will remain limited (another short-term trend) ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Corporate social responsibility [ 2 ]. Robert Shapiro, CEO of the Monsant o Corporation which is a

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Life Cycle Costing Finding

In management accounting, there are various costing methods applicable to use in practice. Some of practitioners are familiar with Job order costing, process costing and activity based costing. The key idea is to apply the right costing method in the right situation. Life cycle costing (LCC) offers another choice to the user. It is usually found in manufacturing, construction, software companies and product development. As we know, consumer and manager need to make decision on the cost of acquisition and cost of ongoing use of many different assets like equipment, motor vehicle, plant and other.As it seems, the key factor to influence the decision of acquisition on assets is the initial capital cost. In addition, the unrealized cost such as ongoing operation and maintenance cost should be considered before the decision making is made. Life cycle Costing is a process to determine the sum of all the costs related with an asset throughout its life which include acquisition, installation , operations, maintenance, renovation and disposal costs.For example, if the managers want to buy the motor vehicle for the purpose of company. They are needed to consider the whole life cycle costing such as their maintenance, their peration, their initial acquisition, and other factor which can give more information to decision maker to make the better decision. This report sets out to address what LCC, why LCC, when LCC, how LCC use on the manufacturing industry. The aim is to provide a clear understanding toward life cycle costing in theory and practise.FINDINGS 1 Life Cycle Costing Life cycle costing is estimates and accumulated costs over a product's entire life cycle in order to determine whether the profits earned during the manufacturing phase will cover the cost incurred during during the pre- (upstream) and post- (downstream) stage. By understand on how to identifying the cost incurred during the different stage of product life cycle, it might help the manager to manage t he total costs incurred throughout its life cycle.In addition, life cycle costing is also helps managements deeply understanding the cost consequences of developing and making a product and to identify area in which may cost reduction effective. The process of Live Cycle Costing involves: l. Assessing costs arising from an asset over its life cycle. Asset life cycle consist of various phase which are planning, acquisition, managing, distribution, and disposition. Though the asset life cycle, all the cost arising from each phase must be estimated at the earlier stage to facilitate in the cost reduction.The acquirer should consider all relevant cost because it is not only about the initial investment and acquisition cost, but all cost occurred over the anticipated life cycle of the assets. II. Evaluating alternative that have an effect on the cost of ownership. The comparisons of asset alternative whether it is at the concept or detailed design level should be evaluate in order to ach ieve better outcomes from the assets. Each alternative may have different pros and cons. Selecting unfriendly alternative may affect all the cost incurred during the period of ownership.Therefore, a thorough evaluation shall be made to avoid unwanted circumstances. For example, the mobile phone industry such as Nokia, Samsung, HTC and other is a fast moving product. Life cycles are short, mobile phone manufacturers spent lots of money on R;D and they have to recover these costs in a short period of time. This explains why newly released mobile phones are sold at such high prices. 1. 2) Reason for use Life Cycle Costing l. Comparison of asset alternatives to achieve better outcome from asset. Each asset lternatives should be evaluated so that it will assess the risk and benefit on every alternatives.A strategize development and implementation of plans and programs for the assets should be done to ensure that the assets operational objectives are achieved at optimum cost. II. Essentia l in determination of cost in the asset management process. It is important to identifying the cost in the asset management process whether the asset should be acquired, upgraded, maintained, or disposed of. It will serve a framework on how the asset will be acquired; planning for the upgrade and maintenance and disposal process will be managed. Ill. As managers' tools in asset.An effective asset manager' tools will help in delivering company objective effectively and efficiently. In addition, the manager's tools will be helps by systematic tools like economic appraisal, financial appraisal, value management, risk management and demand management in weighing up the costs and benefits, risks, objective, revenues and expenditures. ‘V. Enables the decision maker to balance the performance, reliability, maintain abilities and other goals against life cycle costs. In order to achieve the outcomes that reflect performance, reliability and ability, the proper planning, allocation of ogether. . 3) It can be used in three stages Life cycle costing should be applied when there are three stages: l. The conceptual stage: This is the stage when the initial proposal for investments is being considered. It is to estimate the future cost and provision to be made over the life of the assets. For example, the different type and designs of machine to increase the sales production for the manufacturing industry. II. The acquisition stage. This is the stage where the supplier for the assets is being assessed. It is to assist in the selection of the most cost-effective option. Ill. The service stage.The stage of decision making on whether to maintain, improve or dispose of the assets. It is to improve the cost effectiveness of the production as well as to improve the specification of future assets. For example, when automotive manufacturing products their car product, they are improving their quality of car. So that to ensure the customer still keeps loyalty to buy their car for future. 1. 4) Estimate Life Cycle Costing The formula to calculate the life cycle costing: Life Cycle Costing = Capital Cost + Life Time Operating Cost + Life Time Maintenance Costs + Disposal Cost – Residual Value Product Life Cycle PhasesFigure 1 illustrates the relationship between costs committed and costs incurred in the life cycle costing. It involves three stages of a product's life cycle, the planning and design stage, the manufacturing stage and the service and distribution stage. Committed or locked-in costs are costs have not been incurred currently but that will be incurred in the future after the decision basis has been made. Costs are incurred when a resource is sacrificed or used. A system of costing is the record cost only had been done when they have been incurred.Furthermore, the costs that have been committed are difficult to be alter. The pattern of cost commitment and incurrence will vary based on the industry and specific product introduced. During t he planning and design stage, the cost management can be most effectively exercised compared to the manufacturing stage when the product design and processes have already identified and costs have been committed. At the post sales service and distribution phase, its focus more on cost containment than cost management. 1. 4. 2) Life Cycle Costing Model The information should be obtained before selecting a model.This is to ensure that the analysis can be made. Evaluation should be made in considering the applicability f all cost factors, empirical relationship, constants, elements and variables. Life cycle costing model should: l. Represent the characteristic of the asset being analyzed. It includes the intended use environment, maintenance concept, operating and maintenance support scenarios and any constraints and limitations. II. Comprehensive to include and highlight the relevant factors to the Life Cycle Costing asset. Ill.Easy to understand in order to permit timely decision mak ing, future updates and ‘V. Evaluate the specific Life Cycle Costing elements independently of other costing elements. 1. 4. ) Life Cycle Costing Breakdown into Asset Cost Some element need to be identified in Life Cycle Costing. This is because it requires the breakdown of the asset into its part of cost elements over time. The elements that should be considered are: l. Significant amount of cost that generate components of activity. II. Time in the life cycle when conducting the activity. Ill.Resources cost categories that relevant such as material, labor, overhead, transportation and others. 1. 4. 4) Benefits of Life Cycle Costing The benefits the manager can gain from Life cycle costing are: I. Planning and analysis of alternative solutions. It is to serve a framework to document and compare the alternatives to achieve significant cost benefits. Life cycle costing concept will give earlier actions to produce revenue or to lower costs. II. Selection of preferred alternative s. The decision maker can use the information for the selection process with the life cycle costing analysis.Better decision should follow from more realistic and accurate assessment of cost and revenue. Ill. Securing funding. The comparison between the alternatives that have different cash flow patterns over time is important. This is because there are corporate cash lows issues that need to be considered. Life cycle costing analyses provide a basis for projecting cash requirements. ‘V. Review. The life cycle costing can serve confirmation of the reliability of the life cycle costing model. Besides, the credibility of future life cycle costing plans can be achieved. . 4. 5) Life Cycle Costing Process Life cycle costing involves six stages which are: Stage 1: Plan Life Cycle Costing The documentation of the plan needs to be done at the beginning to serve a framework of life cycle costing. This plan must be review to ensure the plan has been interpret correctly and address clea rly. Stage 2: Select or Develop Life Cycle Costing Model All relevant categories of cost that will happen in phases of life cycle should be identified. Select a method for estimating the associated cost and develop the estimates.Stage 3: Apply Life Cycle Costing Model Life cycle costing model need to be validated and obtain the model results from each relevant combinations and support scenarios defined in the analysis plan. Stage 4 : Document and Review Life Cycle Costing Results The documentation of the results should be done to ensure the users understand clearly the results and affects of the analysis along with the constraints and Stage 5 : Prepare Life Cycle Costing Analysis Life cost analysis used to control and manage the ongoing costs of assets or part thereof.It involves review and development of the life cycle costing model asa cost control mechanism. Stage 6 : Implement and Monitor Life Cycle Costing Analysis Life cycle costing should have a continuous monitoring of the a ctual performance of an asset during its operations and maintenance and to provide feedback for future reference. 1. 4. 6) Application to industry For pharmaceutical products, the product life cycle is becoming shorter and shorter s new products keep being developed for the market demand purposes.It is not surprising that new drugs are being sold at very high prices. For example, drugs which are used to fght cancer in targeted therapy can cost a patient on average RM 20,000 to RM 200,000 per month. Again, the life cycle is short (or uncertain), and pharmaceutical companies need to pay back the initial costs in R&D in a short period making high prices necessary. You can imagine how much the companies need to pay for a team of top tier scientists who have been working in the laboratory day and night for many years while developing the drug.Finally, as a short revision on life cycle costing, suppose a new cancer curing drug XXX is expected to have sales of 100,000,000 units in the comi ng 10 years. The selling price is targeted at RM 1,000 per unit. R&D is RM 10,000,000,000, design cost is RM manufacturing cost RM marketing RM distribution costs another RM 100,000,000 and finally customer service RM 50,000,000. Find the life cycle profit for XXX as follow: RM Millions Sales Design Manufacturing Distribution Marketing Customer service Life cycle profit 1 oo,ooo (10,000) (500) (1000) (100) (50) 88,250 The life cycle profit is RM 88,250 million (or RM 88,250,000,000).It is for 10 years and thus on average every year the profit is RM 8,825 million which is quite normal for leading pharmaceutical companies. It can be seen that the total life cycle cost is RM 11,750 million and RM 10,000 million (or 85. 1%) spent on R&D. Life Cycle Costing can be conclude as key asset management tool which takes into account the whole of life implication on the asset starting from the cost planning, acquiring, operation maintaining and disposing. It assist in analyse not only the cost o f acquiring an asset but also the costs over an asset's life like long-term operational nd maintenance costs.In addition, it will be the guidance on how long term strategic planning process, analysis, evaluation and decision making process towards the asset managements. The best expected outcome can be managed if all the relevant cost and benefits over life span of an asset is taking into account. Lastly to overall cost involve in owning, operating and maintaining an asset from the initial planning up till disposal. Thus, selecting the best alternative in order to minimize the possible cost incurred and maximizes the potential savings that can be made.

Monday, July 29, 2019

A response to a book called the emergence of the church By A Patzia Essay

A response to a book called the emergence of the church By A Patzia - Essay Example As part of that background he describes Judaism as it was in first-century Palestine as well as describing what life was like in the rest the Roman empire in general with a well presented exposition of what the Bible says about the growth of Christianity. The early church gained new recruits and spread over a greater geographical despite official persecution after Rome was burnt down, and Nero blamed the Christians for doing so. The books sources are pretty strictly biblical: the Didache is dated at or beyond 100 (p.99), and discussed only at the fringe, and the clearly first-century ROTAS square. In terms of evidence about the development and the eventual emergence of the early church as a distinct religion that was able to spread throughout the Roman Empire not mentioning the ROTAS square is arguably a serious omission. The ROTAS stone was actually found buried in the remains of Pompeii, being buried under the vast amount of waste products produced by the disastrous volcanic eruption of AD 79, and does not figure in this book. The ROTAS stone gives details of the early Christian presence in Pompeii, though of course nobody actually survived the volcanic eruption. Even if not mentioned anywhere else in his book, Patzia does not go into detail about the stone when discussing whether or not there were first-century churches in the Italian peninsula outside of Rome. Although it is not surprising that Patzia would want to concentrate upon the early church’s beginnings in Rome given its later importance for the Christian religion.1 If description and discussion of what the Bible says about the early Church is what youre looking for, this is as good a book to choose as any other. If you want too find out about the emergence and also the development of the early church from non-biblical sources then buy, or burrow another book on the early church.2 The ambience is distinctly Fuller, and here and there this brings up

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 8

Finance - Essay Example Purchases by store card went down from 134 in 1998 to 83 in 2005, thus reflecting a negative trend. However, this cannot be generalized as there was a negligible change in the years from 1998 to 2003, after which there seems to have been a steady downtrend. The total purchase on plastic cards showed a continuous and consistent growth during the period under study. From a figure of 3094 in 1998, the purchases grew to almost double or 6094 in 2005.There was also an increase in ATM and counter withdrawals, though the rise was not a steep one in the period under observation. For automatic transactions (e.g. direct debits, standing orders) there was a steady increase from 1998 to 2005, with the growth being faster in the period from 2003 to 2005.Payment by cheques , showed a negative growth from 2,988 in 1998 to 1,931 in 2005 i.e a reduction of almost 35%.Thus, there seems to have been a decline in the use of cheques for payments in the given period In 2005, the use of cash for transactions fell to 23,968 from 25,309 in 1998. Withdrawals from Post Offices also fell drastically in the period under observation. In 2005, it fell to almost 25% of the value as compared to 1998. While the total value of all transactions remained more or less the same till 2005, for the observation period, it grew marginally from 1998 to 2000, from 37,381 to 40,966.Thus, we can conclude that though there was not much change in the value of transactions from 1998 to 2005, the usage of plastic money, especially debit cards grew phenomenally in the given period. Cash transactions showed a negative trend and Post Office cash withdrawals went down drastically. We can also safely conclude that the group was moving from a credit society to a credit free one. People have realized the value of thrift and do not plunge blindly into credit card obligations. Instead, they spend through debit card, which draws upon the money already available in their account, and is also safer to carry around than cash. Thus, the consumer seems to have become wiser in the given period. Part B Briefly describe the financial planning model and outline what it is designed to achieve. Give an example of how the 'review' stage of financial planning might need to take into account a change in social and economic context and an example of how it might need to take into account the individual's life course. Financial plans are a means of achieving goals. Therefore, being clear about goals helps when working out financial plans. The following table shows how some goals can be achieved by financial planning. In each case, the financial plan provides a means of achieving a goal. Goal Financial plan Help the homeless Adjust pattern of spending Reduce debt worries Improve debt management Have some money to draw on in a crisis Build up an emergency fund Have a lump sum for specific projects Build up short-term savings Have a comfortable retirement Build up long-term savings Buy flat Save for a deposit Protect dependants Make a will Financial planning can take place in four stages. Stage 1 is to assess the situation, including the relative importance of different goals. Stage 2 is to decide on a financial plan, given goals and constraints. Then, Stage 3 is to act on the financial plan, and Stage 4 is to review the outcome of the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Why There Would Be No People Without Plants Assignment

Why There Would Be No People Without Plants - Assignment Example Plants are an important part of the ecology and help in the maintenance of the normal environment on Earth. They are essential to life because they help in cleaning the atmosphere, maintain an appropriate balance of gases on Earth and also they serve as a source of food for the human beings as well as other living beings. Plants have been endowed with a very special property which makes them unique and assists them in performing their functions. The plants take up energy in the form of light from the Sun and a set of reactions ensues within the leaves of the plants. This sequence of reactions leads to the formation of food sources in the form of carbohydrate from the carbon dioxide which is captured by the leaves from the atmosphere. The leaves possess this property due to the presence of a green pigment known as chlorophyll. At the same time there is release of oxygen from the leaves of the plants. This process is known as photosynthesis as it uses up light and it occurs during day time because of the availability of sunlight during the day and at the same time there is synthesis of carbohydrates. Hence this function of the plants assists in the utilization of carbon dioxide which is produced in the atmosphere by human beings during breathing and also during other processes. The plants also utilize oxygen like all living matter for the carrying out of the process of respiration. This oxygen is used to drive the processes a t the cellular levels to provide energy for the appropriate usage of energy. Hence the plant has a complex mechanism in which it utilizes carbon dioxide and produces oxygen in the process. But they also then utilize oxygen for carrying out essential reactions. The plants basically carry out the process of photosynthesis mainly during the day and the process of respiration and utilization of oxygen is at peak during the night. Therefore it can be seen that the plants form

English Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

English Law - Essay Example At the risk of gross oversimplification, one can identify the following strategic positions: (A) Practitioners: In this position are all the people who provide services to individuals and institutions who must orient their behaviour toward the law, providing information about the likely outcome of relationships, deals and conflicts that are legally regulated. (B) Law Appliers: These are the positions officially consecrated for making authoritative interpretations of legal norms in concrete situations. It includes not only judges but also arbitrators and administrative officials, among others. (D) Educators: Someone has to socialize entrants, bind the field together and encode its structural constraints. While primary socialization is the responsibility of the schools in almost all legal fields, socialization is a continuing process and workplace influences are often as important as educational ones. (E) Moral Regulators: Legal professions all have systems that police behaviour and ensure conformity of actors: These include formal mechanisms like accrediting bodies, disciplinary boards, promulgators of legal ethics; as well as workplace influences, informal social networks and the like. (ii) Stakes. ... (iii) Capitals. The players in the legal field deploy various forms of capital. These include economic capital, cultural or informational capital (educational credentials, technical knowledge) and social capital (status acquired both outside and inside the field). The main role players in legal professions in England are barristers and solicitors. Academic requirements for qualifications as a barrister now include a degree - though not necessarily a law degree. Traditionally barristers went to the university but commonly studied some subject other than law. In recent decades however, and especially since the Second World War, a law degree has increasingly become the normal mode of entry to the bar. Over eighty percent of those who enter the bar now possess a law degree. Those who do not obtain a law degree must garner one of the limited number of places in one of the courses run by the universities that give instruction for the Common Professional Examination (CPE) - a one year basic law course after the degree course. Limits on student places for those courses are a restriction on entry not controlled by the profession. In 1975, the bar made a degree a prerequisite for entry, except for a special (and tiny) category of mature entrants. This w as the first effective entry barrier to the bar. Students must obtain a satisfactory pass in each core' subject as well as overall. The vocational course for the practicing bar is run exclusively by the Inns of Court School of Law in London. This course is a prerequisite for practice at the English Bar not only in England, but also as an English barrister in any Member State of the European Community. (Those who intend to qualify as barristers, but not practice, may select a different

Friday, July 26, 2019

Modern Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Modern Democracy - Essay Example The term "democracy" has been claimed by both the capitalist world and the socialist world. To take for example the former East Germany that called itself German Democratic Republic and Viet Nam likewise. The first Russian marxist party that was set up by Lenin in exile, in preparation for the revolution against the czarist regime, had the name of Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. Later it changed its name to Russian Communist Party, and after the split of 1903 with Plekhanov, to Bolshevik Party. Lenin insisted on that real democracy would come only through the great revolution, which leads to the State socialism of the "dictatorship of the proletariat, and finally to the classless communist society. He blamed "bourgeois democracies" of being false democracies, in which parliament seats were systematically bought by the richest bidder, thus perpetuating the status qua of the propertied class-a statement which, incidentally, is an unwarranted generalization. So we can see that even the communists have employed the terms "democracy" and "republic" with an obviously different meaning as compared to their Western usage. In order to clear up the meaning of the concepts, it is necessary to have a look at their historical development ever since the origin of the terms in ancient Greece and Rome. (De Torre, 1997). The word "democracy" is of Greek origin, "republic" is Latin word which means "the public thing": res publi. The concept, however is taken from the Greek polis, which means group of men living and working together, and politeia, which means that this group gathered into "public thing" or commonwealth or commonweal by means of laws guiding towards the common good. Thus, through the work of logos (reason) on physis (nature), society came out from jungle to civilization, from herds to communities, from chaos or disorder to cosmos or order, as man stopped to behave like an animal, guided only by his sensitive feelings and emotions, and learns to guide himself instead by his reason and free will (De Torre, 1997). Modern scientists such as Robert Dahl, Anthony Arblaster, Benjamin Barber, Andrew Heywood and many others have their own, new view on democracy today. There are several models of modern democracy described in works of these authors. According to Professor Robert Dahl, one of the most prominent democratic theorists of nowadays, modern democracy has four historical sources: the direct democracy in ancient Greece, the republicanism of Roman and Italian city-states in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the theory and practice of representative government, and the idea of political equality. The democratic transformation occurred in Greece in the 5th century BC.So as Greece was not a single country, but consisted of a number independent cities-polices Athens was described as having the most innovative and sophisticated democracy (Dahl, 1989). Political ideals and aims of the classical Athenian democracy were expressed by the outstanding Greek philosopher Aristotle in The Politics dated between 335 and 323 BC. Aristotle identifies liberty as one of the founding principles of the classical democratic constitution. The philosopher argues that liberty has two major aspects, namely: 1) ruling and being ruled in

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Crude Oil Prices between 1985 and 1994 Article Analysis Assignment

Crude Oil Prices between 1985 and 1994 Article Analysis - Assignment Example The authors point out that over time, competitive forces have caused a greater variance in the prices of oil in world oil markets even with the market arrangements brought by OPEC or by international oil companies. They agree with other authors such as Claudio Morana who states that both direct and indirect effects that came about because of consumption matters and technologies led to oil price volatilities (Morana, 2012, p. 2). Hence, the authors assert that between 1985 and 1994 there was a volatility in the price of oil as well as other non-oil commodities The two authors divided the article into six major parts. In the introduction, the authors introduce the trends in the volatility of the oil prices, the oil price shocks and the forces behind the volatility of the prices. In the introduction, the authors bring in a very important argument stating that the way competitive forces lead to an upsurge in oil prices, so do the factors that determine the availability and price of oil parallel the factors that determine other traded commodities (Institute for the 21st Century Energy, 2012, p. 2). In the next section titled ‘background and motivation,’ the authors look at the years before the 1985-1994 period and the manner in which oil prices were handled. The authors look at the failure of the major oil companies to set oil prices that led to the emergence of OPEC as the ultimate price determinant. They also look at the price of oil going into the 1980s period when OPEC was weakened by market forces in determining the price of oils. They point out 1983 as the most significant year when the transition to market forces happened and saw the creation of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Different Forms of Corruption Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Different Forms of Corruption - Essay Example Why do these cases seem to appear to be more frequent in modern day sport than previously? An obvious answer is that there is so much more media coverage. It is perhaps as much a matter of perception than of fact. A hundred years ago a person either attended a sports event in person or else read about it in the newspaper after the event. Then came radio and film reports. In the 1930 outside broadcasts began from sporting events such as the Oxford /Cambridge boat race and football matches. Wimbledon was the first broadcast in 1937 and the Football Association Cup final the following year according to ‘The BBC Story’ (undated). Now in the 21st century, we have instant replays, coverage around the globe, and much more in the way of electronic and medical checks. Starting blocks in athletic races, for instance, can tell a split second when a runner leaves the blocks. An instant replay will show cheating that a referee and linesmen may have missed. There are also many more checks such as blood and urine tests which show up various prohibited substances – on occasions those taken inadvertently in such things as flu remedies. It is also possible to spot unusual betting patterns electronically. FIFA, for instance, has an Early Warning System GmbH ( 2011) which looks at betting patterns. None of these checks were present earlier so, if there was any corruption, it would have been much less obvious and harder to prove. Football – according to Sepp Blatter, FIFA president, in a report of May 2010, referees are a weak link when it comes to fighting corruption. So much so that before the 2006 World Cup referees had security guards posted at their hotels and were not allowed to take or make outside calls. Their fees have been increased as an incentive – so it almost looks like do wrong and be rewarded.  

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Impact of Dizzy Gillespie or Bill Evans (select one) Essay

Impact of Dizzy Gillespie or Bill Evans (select one) - Essay Example Worth noting is the fact that Bill Evans is a great brilliant pianist, who worked to the best of his capabilities in the United States of America to lift the jazz industry into greater heights by taking the opportunity of his talent into consideration in improving the piano trio and its democratization (Cankaya, 35). This paper analyses the various musical techniques of Bill Evans in the development of modern jazz music. Many jazz musicians have adopted his techniques, a factor that makes Bill Evans highly influential in the development of the modern jazz style, as will be highlighted in this paper. Bill Evans was born in 1929, and started building his talent right from his mother’s church in Russia at an age of 6 years. His motive to grow in the industry grew, and he developed a school labelled Bill Evans style where he became influential in the industry and encouraged, gave hope and helped colleagues pursue their talents. For instance, he inspired and mentored Petrucciani and Andy Laverine. Research indicates that Bill Evans indulged in heroin abuse; a habit that he opined would boost his energy. Bill Evans faced the compulsion of selecting a favourable career. Since he had an outstanding talent in playing the piano, and opted to pursue it. He ventured into the music industry and due to his reformed chord; he exhibited remarkable growth in the industry. A critical review of history indentifies Bill Evans as a pianist of jazz music (Schachter, et al 42). However, heroin taking was not a merit because it accrued his death in 1980, and led to the breakage of his two-marriages. Bill Evans received five grammy awards as a recognition for his exemplary work of art. Some examples of the most appreciated Bill’s songs include, ‘Beautiful Love,’ produced in 1961 and ‘Are you all things’ created in the year 1975. Bill Evans had a reformed chord that was specifically a gift in him, but he always exerted efforts to ensure that all his songs

Monday, July 22, 2019

Fourth Amendment Exceptions Summary Essay Example for Free

Fourth Amendment Exceptions Summary Essay The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires that no search or seizure shall be carried out unless a warrant has been issued. The exceptions are: searches with consent, frisks, plain feel/plain view, incident to arrest, automobile exceptions, exigent circumstances and open fields, abandoned property and public place exceptions (Harr, Hess, 2006, p. 219). Consent to search any property must be given by t actual owners or, as set forth in the United States v Matlock (1974) by a person in charge of that property. If, for instance more than one person owns a property, only one of those individuals must give consent. There are exceptions to that rule as well. Only commonly shared areas of that property may be searched (Harr,Hess, 2006). Take for instance a family living in an apartment which comprises of a husband, wife and sister to the man. The sister would give consent for common areas, such as the living room, den, kitchen, and bathroom, to be searched and she cannot give consent to allowing the bedroom of the brother and sister in-law to be searched. The husband, on the other hand, could consent to having the bedroom searched because it is there joint bedroom and is not off-limits to him. Other conditions on the searches incident to arrest exception include the use of force, the search of other individuals with the arrested individual, searching the vehicle of an arrest person, contemporaneousness and inventory searches if a government agent has probable cause to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime without a warrant because in the time it would take to get a warrant, the car, driver and contraband or evidence could be long gone (Harr, Hess, 2006. p. 231). The 1981 case of Robbins v. California saw the justifications for searching without a warrant. Those specifications include that the mobility of vehicles produce exigent circumstances.

Different Cultures Learning Styles Essay Example for Free

Different Cultures Learning Styles Essay The word culture has been derived from the Latin word â€Å"cultura† which means to cultivate (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2009). Generally it refers to the manners, norms, values, knowledge, attitudes, art, habits and behavioral practices that are preferred and chosen as ideal by majority of the people of the society. With the encroachment and progress in the hi-tech world of today, different cultures across the globe have rapidly undergone the process of acculturation. Thus, learning of diverse cultures around the globe is not a big issue. There are various styles by which one can easily get versed with the multitude of cultures. Some of the styles are as follows. Worldly classroom set up If we have a look at different traditional classrooms of different countries, as well as different classrooms in various cities within one country; we will witness that a number of similarities and differences exist. There are some common factors like discipline, teaching atmosphere, syllabus, curriculum, learning, traditional teaching tools and classroom sitting style; that are common to all classrooms in any part of the world. The difference comes in the degree of effectiveness in teaching, learning, resource input, extra facilities like heating and cooling system, comfortable sitting arrangements and provision of latest technology etc. These factors definitely contribute to creating differences in the scale of learning among the students. Traditional Classrooms around the world Another very popular and effective style of learning culture is the traditional classrooms around the world. Traditional classroom tends to favor cultural learning to its fullest. It is one of the best places where students can interact for a long duration and learn different regional cultural aspects with the passage of time. Interaction of young students with their fellow age group students and teacher with the students definitely promotes broadening of cultural patterns. These written and unwritten rules, which we call culture, consciously or unconsciously, affect people around us. Students at an early young age being quick observers and imitators are swift in picking, absorbing and following various cultural traits and values. Thus, classroom either at primary, secondary or higher level plays a vital role in learning one’s own as well as other cultures prevailing around us. Today’s American culture verses others If we look into different cultures prevailing across the globe, we see impressions of American culture on rest of the world; reason being advanced technological development. America has played a vital role in diffusing its cultural traits to other cultures. Whether it is progressivism, technology, living patterns, habits, music, entertainment and even mind sets of the people; American influence is clearly visible. Nevertheless, many of the traditional and deeply embedded cultures like Islamic, Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Greek cultures still are maintaining their identity, and have truly preserved their norms and values to a great extent. CUSTOMS AND COURTEOUS Taboo of learning in world cultures Every culture in every society observes certain taboos and manners. There are certain issues and topics that are considered forbidden in some cultures like restrictions on sexual activities and relationships, restriction on various diets, incest taboos, exposure of body parts, social-economic class, medical disorders and diseases, alcoholism, depression and divorce. Taboos vary from culture to culture; a taboo in one culture might not be a taboo in another. These taboos are learnt via culture and transmitted to generations. Adapting in different societies Adaptation level of culture and manners varies from society to society. There are various factors like education, technological advancements, public awareness, and values among the old generation that play their role in the adaptation of the culture. Researches have shown that technological advance societies have greater tendency to accept change and modifications as compared to the traditional backward societies (Whitehead, 2005). Learning styles in different communities Learning styles also vary from society to society. For example some societies are seen under great influence of electronic media like TV, radio, and internet. Where as some get inspiration from print material, poetry, literature, newspapers, and classrooms. In illiterate societies people have their leaders, teachers, religious scholars, parents and grandparents as a source of learning. TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASS ROOM The progress of classroom learning Importance of the traditional classroom learning can never be ignored in any society, thus with the advancement in technology, teaching as well as learning has now become a trouble-free chore. Gone are the days when teachers just used to use simple black board for communication. Progress in the classroom learning can easily witnessed with the use of tools like multimedia, overhead projector, computer, audio and video tapes etc (Integrated Publishing). Many Audio Visual aids are available to teachers so they can perform their job quite comfortably. Making use of virtual class rooms has facilitated the teachers in loads. It saves a lot resources and time when the instructor and learner communicate from their locations. It further promotes distant learning, and makes the learning process enjoyable and reasonably priced (Integrated Publishing). Degrees pertaining to technology A lot of degrees that are related to technology are being offered these days. Computer science, instructional technology degree, technology in distance education, diplomas in virtual education, teleconferencing courses etc are definitely rewarding degrees in today’s modern day. Well advanced students with technologies today The amalgamation of Internet with the latest technological aids has played a vital role in enhancing the learning process among the students. Utilization of technology has no doubt drastically brought several changes in the learning of the individuals. Teleconferencing, virtual universities, online degrees and distance learning have very well equipped the students with latest tools and techniques (Conner, 2006). Moreover it provided the students with an opportunity to interact with a number of qualified teachers and students from within their homes. Several chat rooms, discussion forums are available in order to facilitate the students in broadening their views and thinking. We can safely say that well advanced students are equipped with latest technology today (Conner, 2006). POST SECONDARY LEARNING AROUND THE GLOBE Education in America Generally it is believed that education in America provides chances and corridors to achievement. Post secondary educational learning in American society carries great value and importance, as it contributes to the social, economic, cultural, political, mental and visual development of the nation. It therefore focuses on the expansion of critical thinking, promotion of exploration and research, problem solving, developing insight, adopting skills and proficiency among the youth. So that nation could be gifted with highly professional, mobile, innovative and productive individuals at higher levels. Education in Japan If we look into the post secondary educational learning in Japan, we observe that the aims and objectives prevailing are not much different from those prevailing in America. Both being highly advanced and developed countries, more or less focus on similar learning methods. Impacts of European methods of learning are also visible. However, along with similarities, Japanese educational learning system does have some uniqueness as well, like the Special course schools are similar to non-university education in US. Education in Australia An influx of migrants from more than 100 countries, Australia is basically a British-European society. In earlier times post secondary education meant university education. Main aim behind the post secondary education is the development of mental power (intellect), university should be the center of professional training of students. Along with this, in order to cope with the latest trends it is indispensable to inculcate in students such abilities that will help them to become experts in a specific field of study, put out their best and add to the relevant work in their field. It too has influences of British and American educational learning on it. Conclusion In today’s society, there are a multitude of different cultures. In this paper you will learn about the different types of learning styles around the world. You will also be able to understand the different how technology has greatly improved learning and how different regions of the world have different technologies used for learning. References Conner, M. L. (2006). Introduction to a e-Learning Culture. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from Ageless Learner: http://agelesslearner. com/intros/elc. html Integrated Publishing. (n. d. ). THE SELECTION AND USE OF AUDIOVISUAL (AV) AIDS. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from Integrated Publishing: http://www. tpub. com/content/religion/14229/css/14229_324. htm National Governors Association. (2007). Innovation America. A compact for Postsecondary Education . National Governors Association. Online Etymology Dictionary. (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary: http://www. etymonline. com/index. php? search=culturesearchmode=none Whitehead, B. (2005, Oct 24). Educational technology allows for flexibility in learning and teaching. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from web-conferencing-zone. com: http://www. web-conferencing-zone. com/4030-educational-technology. htm

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Michael Jordan Vs Kobe Bryant

Michael Jordan Vs Kobe Bryant Compare and Contrast of Michael Jordan/Kobe Bryant Everyone always argues about whos the best NBA player between Kobe Bryant and Michael Jordan. Both of these superstars are fascinating and exciting players to watch on the basketball court. Taking a closer look at the comparison of Jordan and Bryant requires more than just fans bias and common assumptions. Most longtime fans would agree that Michael Jordan is the superior player. However, some of the younger fans choose Kobe over MJ. They both bring unique athleticism to the NBA, but the real question, who the best player is? Although Bryant has not quite reached the same point in his career that Jordan has, it is still safe to compare the honors and awards each player has earned throughout their playing days. While these achievements are not necessarily everything, it is definitely a significant piece of information. Jordan has six NBA championships to Bryants three. Jordan has been named MVP five times. Bryant has zero MVPs to his name. Jordan has ten scoring title, Bryant has three scoring titles. Jordan has been elected best defensive player of the year, something Bryant has never done. Jordan made a direct impact on the game when he arrived to the league and was the NBAs rookie of the year in 1984. Bryant developed his game after a couple of seasons before making any impact on the league. To conclude, Jordan accomplished more achievements in his career than Kobe . Many Jordan fans argue that Bryant never could win without Shaq, while Bryant fans state that Jordan never won without Pippen. However, most people fail to remember the NBA title won in 1998 by Jordan and the Bulls. This championship was so special because Scottie Pippen, Dennis Rodman, remained injured due to their back throughout the entire playoffs. This caused MJ to put the team on his back and lead the Bulls to another title by himself, something Bryant has yet to do. Also, a key example of Bryants failure to finish off in the NBA Finals was in 2004 when he had four future hall-of-famers in the starting lineup. In attempts to take over, Bryant took multiple unnecessary shots as he got shut down by Tayshaun Prince and the Pistons. The Detroit Pistons dominated the series, winning four games to one. However, no one ever shut down Jordan . To conclude, Jordan could win with or without Pippen. In respect to Bryant, in recent years, he has accomplished feats Jordan never did. There are two most notable feats. The first is the 81-point performance Bryant made in a single game. Jordan s closest game to that only left him with 69 points. The other remarkable achievement occurred this year when Bryant scored at least 50 points in four straight games. Throughout Jordan s illustrious career, he never reached this number. However, Jordan did score at least 50 points in three straight games on multiple occasions. In respect to Jordan , he averaged more points, assists, rebounds, steals and blocks throughout his career than Bryant has in his career. Jordan s playoff numbers exceed Kobe s as well. Nobody has outscored Jordan in the playoffs, considering his average for points per game is higher than every other player in NBA history. Jordan average 33.1 points and Kobe average 28.1 points. Also, Jordan holds the record for the highest points per game average in a single playoff series as well as for the NBA Finals, which was 63 points. In conclusion, with all the statistics, awards, and championships, Jordan seems like the easy pick over Bryant as the superior basketball player. His skill set, selfless attitude, and basketball smarts outclass Bryants. Jordan is considered by many the greatest basketball player ever. If Bryant wants to be seen in the same light, he has a long, rough basketball road ahead of him.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Sense and Sensibility :: Literary Analysis, Jane Austen

Benevolent, willing, and knowledgeable—are all characteristics of Elinor Dashwood. Authors often use characteristics of characters to portray them as imperative pieces of the plot. In Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility, Elinor is shown as an important character through her compassion towards others and her willingness to help her family through difficult situations. Readers first see Elinor’s importance to the novel through her compassion towards Colonel Brandon, John Willoughby, and Edward Ferrars. When Colonel Brandon came into her life she treated him with very little compassion but as time went on â€Å"Elinor’s compassion for him increased† (47). Her compassion radiates through her determination to always engage in a conversation with him: â€Å"and talk to Elinor, who often derived more satisfaction from conversing with him than from any other daily occurrence† (145). Throughout the novel the readers see that Elinor dislikes Willoughby but after he breaks Marianne’s dislike turns into abhor. However, when Willoughby comes to Cleveland to apologize and explain, â€Å"Elinor’s heart, which had undergone many changes in the course of this extraordinary conversation, was now softened again† (292). Elinor has to deal with her own pain and hurt from her rejection. When they return home from Cleve land Edward arrives and asks for forgiveness. Elinor bestows compassion upon Edward in the form of accepting his marriage proposal and then marrying him: â€Å"The first month after [Edward and Elinor’s] marriage† (336). Through her compassion towards these three characters readers see the importance of her presence in the novel. Next the readers see how Elinor willingly helps her sister get through adversities in her life. â€Å"Elinor was to be the comforter of others in her own distresses, no less than in theirs; and all the comfort that could be given by assurances of her own composure of mind† (228). So therefore, Elinor unselfishly puts aside her emotions to comfort Marianne after Willoughby rejects her and breaks her heart: â€Å"What!—while attending me in all my misery, has this been your heart?† (229). Marianne realizes that Elinor has known about Edward’s engagement to Lucy, but she chose to put it behind her in order to comfort her. This pain has been weighing Elinor’s heart for four months, which makes it even harder for Marianne to understand. â€Å"Four months!—cried Marianne again—so calm!—so cheerful!—how have you been supported?† (229). Elinor’s answer to this inquiry shows clearly why she chose to be selfless and conceal her pain: â€Å"and I owed it to my family and friends, not to create in them a solicitude about me† (229).

Friday, July 19, 2019

What sparked WW1, How Did it End? :: World War I History

What sparked WW1, How Did it End? World War I was a war that took place I Eastern Europe during the years of 1914- 1918. This war involved the countries of Austria-Hungary and Serbia. The Serbians sparked these wars. In 1912, several Balkan states attacked Turkey. This sparked wars over these lands. Economic tension was also present. As international tensions grew, the great powers expanded their armies and navies. This gave the possibility of wars emerging at any time. Fear of war also gave military leaders great influence. British and German generals and admirals received the respect of the people and funding to build their forces. Serbia also wanted a South Slav empire, at this they would not stop for. A terrorist group called the Black Hand planned to kill the Archduke of Hungary Francis Ferdinand who planned to visit Sarajevo. On June 28th Gavrilo Princip assassinated Francis. Since he was under 20 years of age he was not executed. Instead he was sentenced to life in prison. He died in 1918 of tuberculosis. This severely angered the Austrians. They issued the Serbians an ultimatum. In it Austria stated to avoid war Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian officials involved in the murder plot. It must even let Austria join the investigation. Serbia agreed to most of the terms in the treaty, but not all. On July 28th Austria declared war on Serbia. Austria might not have declared war on Serbia if not for its longtime ally, Germany. In Berlin, Kaiser William II was horrified at the assignation of Francis Ferdinand and advised Francis Joseph to take a stand against the Serbia and assured him of German support. Instead of urging restraint, Germany gave Austria a "blank check." Serbia sought support from Russia. From St. Petersburg Nicholas II telegraphed William II. The czar asked William to urge Austria to soften its demands on the ultimatum. When this plea failed, Russia began to mobilize its troops. Russia then appealed to its ally, France. In Paris, nationalists saw this as a chance to avenge Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Italy remained neutral while Britain had to decide whether they should back their ally, France or remain neutral. Germany then decided to join the Russians and quickly defeat France in order to avoid a war on both sides of the country. This was their biggest fear.

Science Fiction Explored in Frankenstein, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and The

The Legacy of Science Fiction Explored in Frankenstein, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and The Invisible Man Science Fiction is a branch of literature that explores the possibilities of human scientific advances, especially technological ones. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (published in 1818) was a precursor of the genre which was established by Jules Verne's novels of the late 1800's. HG Wells at the turn of the twentieth century brought more scientific rigour in his works, such as The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The War of the Worlds. Isaac Asimov and Arthur C Clarke are among the most familiar writers of science fiction of the modern era (Cambridge Encyclopaedia, 1994). However, works from an earlier time, Frankenstein, Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and H.G.Wells' The Invisible Man, have had a profound influence on thinking about science and its relationship to humanity and the world we live in. [AU1]This essay explores the cultural legacy of these three works and seeks to explain why they have been so influential. Frankenstein explores many issues related to science and humanity[AU2]. Behrendt has identified some of the themes as individual and class alienation, social conditioning, gender stereotyping, conflict between rational intellect and intuitive emotion and the revisionist Romantic view of the relation between God and humanity [AU3](1990). Alienation is seen in the fact that Frankenstein left community to do his experiments, and refused to share with others what he had found; at the same time he utterly abandoned the life that he created (Madigan 2000, cited in Penner nd). [AU4]Gender stereotyping is noted by Johnson (1987) who sees the novel as the story of a man who usurps the female role b... ...984) Science and society: A brief look at the Invisible Man. The Wellsian, 7: 19-23[AU11] Suvin, D (1991) Wells as the Turning Point of SF tradition. In J Huntington (ed) (1991). Critical essays on H.G. Wells. Boston: G.K. Hall[AU12]. US National Library of Medicine (Feb 2002) Frankenstein: Penetrating the secrets of Nature. [Online] Available: [Accessed 13 June 2002] [AU1]Thesis statement [AU2]Topic sentence [AU3]Year of pub put here to mark off Behrendt from next reference [AU4] Content-prominent reference because it is not controversial [AU5]Author-prominent because it is an opinion. [AU6]Topic sentence [AU7]Direct quotation [AU8]Link with preceding paragraph [AU9]Conclusion [AU10]Chapter in book edited by two authors [AU11]Journal article [AU12]Chapter in book edited by one author

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Controversies of Racism Essay

The subject of racism is a continual controversial issue within everyday society. It’s inevitable. Everywhere you go, you’ll come across some sort of discrimination or racism. It’s like we’re programmed to judge instantly, it’s in our human nature. Religion, age and racial discrimination literally surrounds us and we can’t do much to stop it until we change ourselves, and let’s face it that’s probably not going to happen. So the main questions I normally ask myself are: Why are we prejudiced? Is being different that bad? And are we really that different? Hitler definitely seemed to think that we were. So did America back in the 1600’s where the first of racism and black slavery began and half the world’s population in the 21st Century think so too. It was said for many years that Hitler was obsessed with racial â€Å"purity† and spread his beliefs in speeches and writings pronouncing that his race needs to remain pure in order to rule the world. What was his definition of pure? To have blue eyes, fair skin and blonde hair. Who is to say that makes you the perfect being? Absolutely no one. When Hitler and the Nazis came to power, these beliefs became the government motto and were spread publicly in posters, on the radio, in movies, in classrooms and in newspapers. After Hitler took power, Nazi teachers in school classrooms began to apply the principles of racial science. The teachers measured skull size and nose length and recorded the colour of the student’s hair and eyes to determine whether students belonged to the â€Å"true race†. This constant negative message that was being sent out influenced the younger students to continue with racism. The Nazis also began to put their ideology into practice with the support of German scientists who believed that the human race could be improved by limiting the reproduction of people considered â€Å"inferior† such as Jews, people with disabilities, gypsies, black people, and people with skin diseases, Jehovah’s Witnesses and any other flaws humans are born with. Hitler viewed the Jews not as a religious group, but as a poisonous, disgusting â€Å"race†, which â€Å"lived off† other races and weakened them. And so began the Holocaust. Hitler threw innocent Jewish people into concentration camps letting them starve to death, gassing them, burning them alive and countless other torturous acts because they weren’t what he saw to be the ‘’perfect being’’. That may have been around sixty years ago but why does genocide still happen? After the Jewish Genocide, the cold war genocide, Rwanda genocide and just recently the genocide in Darfur occurred. Slavery is a black eye on the soul of America’s history. There has never been an excuse for one human to own another. We humans as a species should always have been treated equally. Why should people own other people? Are human beings animals? How can you hate someone so much by the colour of their skin? There simply is no answer. Slavery began around the 1600’s when the first black man was used as a servant. The slavery continued on, all the way through to the 1900’s where the servants were used to clean, cook food, babysit and do the dirty work around the house while a racist extremist group called the Ku Klux Klan that believed in Hitler’s message abused them with hate crimes and acts of domestic terrorism. Black people were treated like they were the scum of the earth; they were abused, spit on, beaten and in worst case scenario, murdered. They weren’t allowed to go to the same stores, schools, diners, and churches as the white people in America which was a huge disadvantage to the African-American race. When the racial segregation happened, which was a big milestone in history, the African–Americans were allowed to have the same facilities as everyone else, much to Americas disdain. Their freedom was limited; the African-Americans resorted to sitting at the back of the bus, or were only allowed to go to certain public areas. So why it is that racism still exists? What will it take for mankind to realize that despite the colour of a person’s skin, we are all amazing, complex people, who have wonderful characteristics that should be admired and loved? But people also need to realize that some people that were born black didn’t CHOSE to be black. I mean, I’m a black girl but that doesn’t make me hate the whites and love the blacks. Both races are the same to me. I guess equality is such a new concept within everyday American society that many raw emotions still cloud their judgment. Now in the 21st Century, racism still exists and in varying forms. Not only is there racial discrimination, religion is discriminated against also. When you see a Muslim man walking down the street or a woman wearing a burka, do you cower in fear? There is this new phobia called Islamophobia where there is hatred, prejudice or fear of a Muslim person and this term came to use fter the September 11 terrorist attack. But why be scared of only Muslim’s? Everyone is capable of causing great harm to society and just recently the Norway attack occurred and this attack wasn’t done by a Muslim. It was by a Norwegian citizen that no one suspected. This man, Breivik planned the attack to annihilate multiculturalism in Norway and to preserve a Christian Europe. His political views were to conserve his culture and promote Islamoph obia, he also urged Europeans after this attack to restore the â€Å"historic crusades† against Islam as in the Middle Ages. You could say that Islamophobia is the new form of black racism as it is a practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social and public life of everyday society. The new law that was passed down in France of not being able to wear the burka is an example. French police arrested two veiled women just hours after the country’s new ban on wearing the burka in public came into force. This law is the first of its kind to be enforced in Europe, and the French police said they will be extremely cautious as there are fears of Muslim women provoking violence while the burka. The law should not push minorities around. I believe that people should be allowed to wear what they want, free of coercion. The burka is a Muslim practice and I do not see the big deal, it is not a security risk. It is believed that Islam has no values in the Western society and is an inferior and violent religious belief. On the contrary, the violent belief is this new phobia. What do you think? Far too many of us speak of equality and hope, yet secretly have hate. Most people will tell you, that they are not racist individuals. Many of these people though, are either fooling themselves, or just don’t want to make a bad reputation for themselves. Everyone is based on little more than stereotypes and stories of that what happened years ago with Hitler and the black slavery. So we need to put aside all the things that happened generations ago. It happened out of ignorance and right now what we need to be doing is unite as one race, stop the negative attitudes and beliefs that permeate around us and try to make the future brighter. Some people believe that racism is in our human nature. Do you think so?

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Bangladeshi Soft Drinks Market

Soft Drings Executive Summary The suggest of this term paper was to local anestheticise on swap sw any(prenominal)ows (Pepsi and Mojo dummy). Theterm paper re personates the contrary types of grocery activites undertaken by both crops toh old customers of BangladeshThis report similarly progress tos an overview of pot commensurate constancy in Bangladesh and a uniform an overview ofPepsi and Mojo grasss pargonnt companies. Akij Food & boozing Ltd. has been realized at a good-looking rank Krishnapura, Dhamrai ofcapital of Bangladesh. It has set just round(predicate) with the best nutriment & crapulence in Bangladesh. There argon sundry(a) types of suck.Mojo is the instigator score of locoweed, Lemu is the cross go forth call up of Lemon and Speed is the discoloringation form ofenergy sop up. Immediately afterwards the foot of the stigma it became in truth usual among its subscriber because of the noble fibre and intensive dispersal in each nook and break of the land. Checky meddle is the give away physique of banana chips produced from this factory. It be positionings isbecoming common derriere chips in Bangladesh. near of our Raw materials come from heterogeneous remotecountries. The grapheme is genuinely strictly comptrollerled. At alwaysy stage, non standard reapings atomic snatch 18 rejected. On the opposite hand Pepsi Co. is a multinational comp each.Originated in The USA Carolina in 1898. Since hence it has been satisfactory to stay in arguing with its biggest bear on coca plant- dumbbell. Pepsi, at once is aworldwide differentiate and consumed by millions of slew. Pepsi was introduced in Bangladesh byTranscom Group. As a corporate citizen Pepsico conceptualizes it has a state to contri exactlye to thequality of heart in our communities. Transcom swallow Ltd has put into action this philosophy by factor of assist of social agencies, projects and programs and the scope of th is corroborate is leng consequentlyedand it has non been difficult to drop dead with this philosophy since the TRANSCOM assemblage similarlyfollowed much(prenominal) a corporate ideologyChapter1 1. 1 INTRODUCTION ( swallow industry of Bangladesh) aft(prenominal) indep block upence of Bangladesh the f atomic number 18 ha crisp of muckle has been changed a lot. Besides our impostal solid food consumer of Bangladesh same to take westbound food as nearly as after 1980s. As a result ofglobal selling this was non too hard for the consumers. Different foreign food companies wereestablished in Bangladesh. crapulence industry is wiz of them. precisely to a greater extent(prenominal) c aringly we dontk with aside delay beverage is as well as our ethnic food because beverage doesnt baseborn only carbonated presents.Yoghurt, soup and lacchi argon a resembling beverage of our let tradition which consumed for the last 100 divisions in Bangladesh. But carbonated bev erage is impertinently in Bangladesh and get offly our research is oncarbonated beverage trade in Bangladesh and consumer reaction to it. Carbonated beverage entered into our mart in the subsequently part of 1980. At that clock time at that place were onlyfew companies in Bangladesh. But by the change of time and western culture influences itsbecome precise popular in Bangladesh. By year 2000 to a greater extent than 12 drinking comp whatsoever operatingbusiness in Bangladesh and roughly of them atomic number 18 foreign companies. Bangladesh drunkenness 2006)At present there atomic number 18 19 beverage companies operating business in Bangladesh. They are 1. Transcom crapulence Ltd. 2. Sun Crest Beverage Industries Ltd 3. Abdul Monem Limited 4. K. Rahman and political party 5. Eastern Beverage Industries Ltd. 6. Sanowara Drinks and Bev. md. Ltd. 7. Asia Business Ltd. 8. Desh Beverage Co. Ltd 9. Northern Beverage Ltd. 10. National Beverage Industries Ltd. 11. Brid ge dope Limited 12. Tezarat Enterprise 13. Southern Beverage Ltd. 14. K. Rahman and Comp whatever 15. Bangladesh Beverage Ind. Ltd. 16. Dhaka Beverage Industries Ltd 17.Sunny Foods and Beverage Ltd. 18. Tabani Beverage Co. Ltd. 19. K. Rahman and Compevery 1. 2 Akij Food & Beverage Ltd Akij Food & Beverage Ltd. has been established at a beautiful site Krishnapura, Dhamrai ofDhaka. It has come with the best food & beverage in Bangladesh. There are divers(a) types of drink. Mojo is the brandmark name of gage, Lemu is the brand name of Lemon and Speed is the brand name ofenergy drink. Immediately after the introduction of the brand it became very popular among itsconsumer because of the risque quality and intensive distribution in every nook and corner of thecountry.Checky Monkey is the brand name of banana chips produced from this factory. It as well is becomingpopular chips in Bangladesh. well-nigh of our Raw materials come from assorted foreign countries. The quality is ver y strictlycontrolled. At every stage, non standard convergences are rejected. 1. 3 Transcom Beverage particular(a) On the groundwork of an exclusive Franchise for Bangladesh from Pepsico USA, TBL acquired threemodern bottling plants at Dahaka, Chittagong and Bogra from BBIL Dhaka Chittagong and NBIL,Bogra in March 2000. TBL manufactures the famous pad of beverages-Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda.As a corporate citizen Pepsico believes it has a debt instrument to contribute to the quality of life in ourcommunities. TBL has put into action this philosophy through with(predicate) support of social agencies, projectsand programs and the scope of this support is extensive and it has non been difficult to blend withthis philosophy since the TRANSCOM root word followed such a corporate ideology. Chapter2 2. 1 accusatory OF THE STUDY This term paper would focus on grocery store segmentation, selling mix, consumer attitudes towardsbeverage drinks of Bangladesh (i. e.Mojo and Pepsi). It shoul d be noniced that this report has been do in the context of East Pakistani market and different segmentations and promotional activitesanalyzed in this report are solely based on the Bangladeshi consumers perspective . E. g. It bequeathdiffer from country to country. If Mojo becomes multinational and goes to countries like K. S. A,Libya, The U. S. A, The U. K. then(prenominal) the current activities undertaken by Mojo has to be changed in aver to stay in worldwide aspiration. Because, cultures pull up stakes from country to country. 2. 2 Source of informationDue to limited time maximum data were lay in from theinternet, shop to shop subject field was through with(p) in exhibition to estimate the gross taxation of these beverages. 2. 3 Limitation The major(ip) drawback patch preparing this report was inadequate time as a resultthe report lacks some potency information. Moreover, repayable to class schedule clank in depthresearch on the topic was hampered. umpteen inf ormations were not disclosed by Mojo dealers(Palashi, Azimpur) as they considered these informations to be confidential. Information on Pepsi was gather from the internet and local shops as Pepsi is a multinational federation.Adequateinformation well-nigh Pepsi is not accessible from the context of Bangladesh. Chapter3 3. 1 Mojo (Information) Mojo, is a brand of Akij Food and Beverage Ltd. , a sister stage business ofprominent theme of companies of Bangladesh, Akij Group. In the year 2007 Mojo was themarket challenger in Bangladeshi grass market with a exchanges of or so 52 crores BDT. The brandwas launched in 14th April, 2005 luffing the youth of Bangladesh who like the Bangladeshitrends. exclusively there years, Mojo is doing quite good in the market and competing well with other(a)brands.Mojos price is its profit but it has to improve its two-bagger & proceeds quality. Unfortunately, Mojo is lagging foundation referable to inadequate promotional activities. E. g. Slogan,names meaning and so ontera It has excessively failed to communicate its get aligning the tar eviscerate consumers. but, unchanging now Mojo has the potential drop to recover its declare sit (according to suss out). Consumer doings such as perception, attitude, self-orientation and life style, thisreport has entrap out some drawbacks and recommended some light uponive strategies to recoverthose relinquishs successfully. 3. 2 grocery store SituationMojo is not far behind in order to anticipating the current market situation. After creation inthe introduction stage for a in short period of time Mojo is successfully now in the growthstage and doing well for its good renown and unique marketing effort. With theintention of change magnitude sale and obtaining market availing Mojo is targeting and creating awell go with position into the market. To collect information regarding market, serviceperformance, disceptation and distribution Mojo is evermore devel oping promotionalstrategies, passs and carrying out market surveys. 4 April 2010, Mojo arranged afair and the era was three years. It was held on field of Pranthapoth. They welcomedthe Bangla year 1417 very nicely. Because who had a nursing bottleful of Mojo, then that persongot the entry in the concert without any ticket. 3. 3 Target trade Most of the aristocratical drink companies are now targeting the revolutionaryfangled multiplication and indeed this is the besttarget for any dim drink companies. Keeping this social occasion on mind Mojo has decided to targetespecially the tonic-made generation along with the mint from various types of socio-economicclasses.Akij Group is now oblation extensive distribution distribution passageway in order to capture and affordsure the straitlaced distribution of Mojo so that young generation passel well avail it where ever they arein the country. Last time we saw in Mojo bare that an old couple were sharing a bottle of Mo jo. So, they cleared that it is not only a product for the young passel but in any case their target is alsosenior citizens. Though Mojo is hardly selectred by Old antiquated pot. PROFILE OF THE TARGET MARKET Cola drinks usually follow an undifferentiated marketing strategy to target their consumer.Keeping this fact in mind, we conducted a sample survey by selecting random sample fromdifferent places. The following password will attempt to analyze the visibleness of the target marketbased on the sample classify. 3. 4 Demographic Factors grow Age is the major determinants in targeting the consumers. MOJO reflects the Bangladeshi cultureand it represents youth. From our survey, we fool open up that MOJO is to the highest degree preferred in the age crowd between 20-25 years (85% of 100). Moreover, the least(prenominal) MOJO preference comes fromtwo age assemblys 25-35 years and 35-45 years, almost 1%. SexBeverage is used for thirst-quenching purpose and this product is gender neutral, meaning there isno such kind of obligation to consume the product for male or female. However, from our surveyoutcome, we adjudge found that 71% of the consumers are male and 29% are female from 100. Allthe respondents are from urban location. MARKETING MIX 4PS OF MOJO5. 1 Product The product MOJO locoweed has come with the following variations in the market- 250 ml bottle 500 ml bottle gigabyte ml or 1 cubic decimeter bottle cl ml rouse The MOJO Cola has been do with a proper technology. So there is no encounter to occurfluctuation in preference.The cola drinks contain a very loaded taste which raft compete with the marketleader coca plant- Cola and RC cola. Other Factors Meaning of MOJO Meaning of MOJO is the smell or sapidity the respondent have instantly after hearing the name oranalyzing it. To 60% respondents, MOJO means caper or enjoyment. To 14% it means no social occasion. Inaddition, other 26% varies within music or art, sports, thirst pa ssion etc. contender Soft drink market always offer high take of competition among companies. Because,soft drink is a fast paltry consumer good and its demand always fluctuate based onseveral(prenominal) reasons (E. . Taste, weather conditions, etc. ). It accept the degree of competition and speciality of competition. So in that case both the degree and intensity of competition are very highfor Mojo. Because the market it was operating was already touched by big companies such asCoke, Pepsi, regal opinion poll Cola. Surprisingly, these giant companies are considering Mojo, as aravenous challenger in the market. So its a good news for Mojo that competitors like Coca Cola, Pepsi are thinking near Mojo consciously. It is because Mojo has already grabbed good portionof Bangladeshi beverage market share.Mojo believes that they have the strong distribution power,creative marketers, financial power and quality to grab competitions market share as well as maturation their own sel ling. Before preparing the term paper we made a brief market survey and we saw that in every popular market of Dhaka city, wholesalers are very active and demand is veryhigh. distribution The strongest shoot for of MOJO is their intensive distribution channel. They make this thingpossible because Akij Group of industries especially their beverage sector has a profoundlogistic and supply bowed stringed instrument management system.So they commode easily go to door to door oftheir target consumers. They believe that delivering products to consumer hands is notsufficient or convenient replete that is wherefore for near future progression they are laborious todevelop their distribution channel in such manner that they smoke easily make theirpotential customer in to actual customer. And we essential shapete that the dealer of a particular soil is really expert and the do their cable on the time. Objecetives & Issues The promotional tend rear end undertake 3 types of object ives1. To inform,2. To comport3. To remind.In the case of Mojo, the campaign will basically focus on persuasion, since MOJOis in maturity stage of its life cycle and will try to crack out its current perception in urban late lives. The denote objective for MOJO is to persuade the target audience to make a obtain and to obtain 8% increase in gross revenue. like a shot a day, Mojo is not a new product. And for thatreason, antecedently the companys target was to make positioning just about Mojo because it was a newproduct and gratify try it. But now Mojo is in growth stage so it is trying to maximize the marketshare and retaining the market share is also important hereadvertizing Strategy Advertising is a challenging factor for Akij Groups Mojo. As the sales of Mojo highly relies onadvertising. It has to be done in such a way which is convert, prepossessing to people, which willrun on peoples mind 24/7. crap an effective advertising and promotional campaign mustselect the righ t spokesperson to deliver a convincing substance and the appropriate impart ormedia. As part of the suppuration of the advertising strategy of Mojo, all the advertisingcampaigns will try to communicate the analogous message to make for the advertising objective as set anddiscussed previously. Their main logan is Mojo Ontor e Ontor e and for that reason they alwaystry to make every ad including this slogan. Stimulus Characteristics Logo The logotype of MOJO is reapive and representing the youth although they did not forgot about theaged people. Therefore, this upholds them to get a good result. Soul facial expressioning All the multinational soft drink companies-showing advertizings are made abroad. In thiscase, MOJO cola differentiated themselves. They are making the ads in our country, as they wantto be the cult brand. As they are, doing this so people enkindle feel that it is our cola and I am buyingmy soft drink that in terms patron them to feel good.Therefore, people h ave a soft corner for them intheir mind. box Packaging also helps in the perception execute. fetching sheaf cease grab peoples oversight. MOJO cola agnize this and they are concentrating on it. The two most life-sustaining job of packaging are take Attention The dark packaging seees the fear instantly. People like shrill things and they go forcolorful things. That is why within a short time MOJO cola got the circumspection of the target aspect. Convey Meaning The colorful packaging conveys the meaning that MOJO is a youthful product.Mixing up thebrand with colors, which have a meaning, is sensible. That gives people meaning and they went forit. CONSUMERS LEARNING & MOJO encyclopaedism is any change in the field or organization of long- term retrospect and/or air. Learning about soft drinks is a low- involvement learning situation. Consumer deportment is largelylearned behavior. Learning about MOJO Cola is for the most part low involvement learningstate of affairs. Controls unless like all other companies Mojo is also very much look up about controlling theirmonetary and operating cost.That is why every month Mojo conduct fibre assurancesurvey, Sales figure monitoring, Feedback from Retailers and Sales rend not only bytheir employees but also by students from different universities by religious offering exclusiveincentives and gift items. They evaluate their inventory, quality, acceptance of Mojo fromdifferent perspectives. By keep checking these things Mojo tin bottom stay in the market by notonly minimizing their cost and put down by also maximizing their revenue and returns. Weknow its very much time eat and expense become high, but to know the currentsituation the company must do it. genial responsibilities Akij aggroup of industries not only concern about increasing their sales, capture market share andgaining profit but also concern to do something for the social disclosement. Through out theircampaign Mojo has always been t he pioneer in order to come across to help old, orphanage andhomeless street children. The Group has been discharge a considerable orphanage fall by the wayside of charge indistrict town. The Group has also acquired a modern mother & children infirmary previously ownedby Save the Children (UK). The hospital is being operated as a non-profitable concern by Ad-DinWelfare Trust. Pricing policyThe set policy of Mojo has been done very carefully. Mojo has morecompetitors (e. g. Coca Cola, Pepsi) in the market. Compared to them Mojo has set pricereasonably. The determine of Mojo is discussed downstairs ? lambert - Tk 14/- ? l - Tk 25/-pic 1 Litre - Tk 45/- 2 Litre - Tk 75/- Chapter4 4. 1 Pepsi (Information) Pepsi was first introduced as Brads Drink in New Bern, North Carolinain 1898 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his home where the drink was sell. It was later namedPepsi Cola, possibly collectable to the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe.Bradhams ought t o constitute a fountain drink that was luscious and would aid in digestion and boost energy. In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of sirup. The abutting year, Pepsi was sold in six-ouncebottles, and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile break away pioneer Barney Oldfieldwas the first celebrity to approve Pepsi-Cola, describing it as A bully drink refreshing,invigorating, a fine bracer onwards a race. The advertising theme palatable and Healthful wasthen used over the next two decades.In 1926, Pepsi legitimate its first logo re role since theoriginal design of 1905. In 1929, the logo was changed again. In 1931, at the depth of the extensive Depression, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy inlarge part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as aresult of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Peps i trademark. Eightyears later, the company went bankrupt again. Pepsis assets were then purchased by Charles Guth,the professorship of Loft Inc. Loft was a confect manufacturer with retail stores that contained sodafountains.He sought to regenerate Coca-Cola at his stores fountains after Coke refused to give him adiscount on syrup. Guth then had Lofts chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula. On three separate make between 1922 and 1933, the Coca-Cola Company was offered the prospect to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company and it declined on each occasion. Ingredients In the linked States, Pepsi is made with carbonated water, high fruit sugar corn syrup,caramel color, sugar, Phosphoric sexually transmitted disease, caffeine, citric acid and natural intuitive feelings. A deal of Pepsi (12 flounces) has 41 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar), 30 mg of odium, 0 grams of fat, 0 gramsof protein, 38 mg of caffeine and 150 calories. The caffeine-free Pepsi-Cola contains the sameingredients but without the caffeine. The original Pepsi-Cola recipe was purchasable from documents filed with the court at the time thatthe Pepsi-Cola Company went bankrupt in 1929. The original formula contained neither cola norcaffeine. 4. 2 Market Situation Pepsi Cola is a reknowned brand all over the world. Its demand is increasing each year. Pepsi is incompetition in Bangladesh for many years. Its major competitiors are Coca Cola, RC Cola andnow Mojo is progressing in competition.The main of Pepsi just like any other beverage companyis to make supranormal profit by increasing sales. not only that, Pepsi carries out promotionalactivities throughout the year. Transcom Beverages Ltd (TBL), the franchisee of PepsiCo supranational, has win the Bottler ofthe Year Award for 2009 in PepsiCo International Annual Conference in experience of itsoutstanding business results. Latifur Rahman, chairman and managing director of TBL, received the demonstrate from SanjeevChadha, regio nal CEO of PepsiCo, and Katrina Kaif, an Indian film actress, at a economic consumption inThailand recently, said a statement.Transcom Beverages, which won the award for the third time, bottles, distributes and markets allPepsiCo brands such as Pepsi, 7up, Mirinda, mount Dew, Slice, forage Pepsi and 7up Light inBangladesh. Present on the occasion from TBL were Arshad Waliur Rahman, director, Golam QuddusChowdhury, executive director and CEO, and Khurshid Irfan Chowdhury, habitual manager. Tejinder Khurana, country manager of PepsiCo International, and Goutam Bhattacharjee, territorydevelopment manager of TBL, were also awarded with Ring of Honour for their performances in2009. Daily wiz Sunday, January 24, 2010 4. Target Market like any other beverage competitor in Bangladesh, Pepsis main target is young generation assoft drinks are mainly preferred by youths. condescension local competition Pepsi has hold itsreputation by chargining relatively high price. inwardly last fifteen years Pepsi has reached the extreme by offering extensive distribution channel in order to make sure the proper distribution of Pepsi sothat people can easily avail it where ever they go. Pepsi customers are mostly young groupbetween the ages of 14 to 30 and also target at school, colleges, universities, home, restaurant,hotel and stores. . 4 Market Segmentation Positioning Beverages Soft Drinks Pepsi, Coca-Cola, purple CrownCola Juices Pulpy, Nestle, Fruito Local Drinks Mecca Cola, Mojo Cola Energy Drinks bolshy Bull, Power 4. 5 Competition Pepsi has many rivals in the market. Pepsi considers Coca Cola and Royal Crown Cola as theirbiggest competitiors. However in recent years local carbonated drinks like Mojo Cola and MeccaCola, etc are giving tough competitions to giant beverage companies like Pepsi and Coca Cola. 4. 6 Distribution Pepsi undergoes broad distribution all almost the country.The distribution channel plays animportant role in the companys success. Pepsi h as distributors in all districts. Due to lack of datathe distribution process of Pepsi cannot be discussed. Objectives and issues Pepsi is in its maturity stage. Meaning, everyone knows about this beverage. All it has to do isremind people to consume this drink. The main objective of Pepsi is to make profit by theincrememnt in sales. By means of organizing concerts/trade fairs, Pepsi informs people about theproduct. Advertising strategy Advertising is an important issue for Pepsi. Its competitors undertake massive advertising todominate in market.Equally, Pepsi does the same thing for survival. Most of Pepsis advertising isIndian. Meaning, Indian ads are translated in Bangla. By doing so, Pepsi is able to advertising cost. The main object glass of Pepsi has always been to deliver a convincing message via media. Pepsi usestelevision, newspaper, billboards as its advertising intermediate Controls timberland At every level of Pepsi-Cola Company, we take great care to checker that t he highest standards are met in everything we do. In our products, packaging, marketing and advertising, we strive forexcellence because our consumers expect and merit nothing less.We promise to work towardcontinuous betterment in all areas of our organization. At every step of our manufacturing and bottling process, strict quality controls are followed toensure that Pepsi-Cola products go steady the same high standards of quality that consumers have cometo expect and value from us. We also follow strict quality control procedures during themanufacturing and filling of our mailboats. Each bottle and can undergoes a thorough inspectionand testing process. Containers are then rinsed and quickly filled through a high-speed, state-of-the-art process that helps disallow any foreign material from ingress the product.Additionalquality control measures help to ensure the lawfulness of Pepsi-Cola products throughout thedistribution process, from warehouse to store shelf. Extracted fr om http//www. pepsi. com/ Social responsibilities Environmental SupportPepsi and the entire PepsiCo family embrace our responsibility to be good stewards of our planetsnatural resources. We begin by understanding our environmental footprint and then work to findways to reduce it. Were focused on Energy, Water and Waste areas where we know we can makethe greatest difference. Extracted fromhttp//www. pepsi. com/faqs. php? ection=environmental_support Pricing policy Despite having many competitors, Pepsi is charging high price in analogy to local competitorslike Mojo. ? Litre - Tk 18/- ?Litre - Tk 30/ 1 Litre - Tk 55/ 2 Litre - Tk 90/- Product note In Bangladesh Pepsi offers product differentiation in comparison to Mojo cola by offeringPepsi forage in the market. From this side Mojo is a little weak because these days most people arehealth conscious, diabetes patients, etc. They prefer Pepsi Diet which does not contain sugar. Pepsi Diet is available in two sizes. Litre - Tk 30/- 1 Litre - Tk 55/- Though Pepsis offering differentiation by offering Pepsi Diet it is not charging premium price. The price of Pepsi Diet is same as Pepsi Cola Thus, Pepsi is having competitive advantage over Akijs Mojo Cola. Swot abridgment Mojo Cola Strengths Brand image Akij group is already a established brand name. So there already exists astrong brand image of the company. So if we launch any product under this brand name then itautomatically accept by the consumers. Quality Most of their raw materials come from various foreign countries.The quality is verystrictly controlled. At every stage, non standard products are rejected. So we can say that howwell they are aware about their products quality. Strong distribution interlock Akij group has a strong distribution network and this isone of the most strongest competitive advantages for them. They make product available all overthe country through their strong distribution channel of retailers and whole sellers. Weakness The weakest point of akij group is that if any product sells fall due to poor quality then it willalso affect the other products of other brands. Opportunity change magnitude demand As people are engaging more in fetching beverage product, the demand isincreasing day by day for this kind of product category. nemesis Akij group have a number of competitors especially under Akij Food & Beverage Ltd such asPran juice, Shezan juice, Acme juice. This competition is very high and works as a threat for AkijFood & Beverage Ltd. Pepsi The strengths, the weaknesses, the opportunities and the threats of Pepsi. 1. The advantages of Pepsi-Cola1) Firstly, Pepsi has stayed in this market for almost one century.So they are so experienced andstationed in peoples mind deeply. Now no one doesnt know the brand Pepsi-Cola Whenever thename Pepsi is heard, people will conjure up the image of fresh and cool drink .2) Secondly, Pepsi-Cola is not only in high quality, cool and fresh but also have a competitiv eprice. 3) Thirdly. Pepsi is such an experienced powerful global company, Which has a basic of a greatfund. So it has the qualification to place an idle sum of cash to the promotion. We can see that theadvertisement of Pepsi-Cola is so attractive. It also invited the top famous people to advertise forit. ) Pepsi also compares with the competitors and find their disadvantages to update its own quality,flavor and also package promptly in order to satisfy the consumers need. This is the biggestadvantage of Pepsi company. It is the most popular one. Pepsi company also produce the Diet-Cola to meet the people whomore concern their health. And it just changes the design of the package of Pepsi-Cola. 2. The disadvantages of Pepsi-ColaBut we cannot consider things just on one side. Still there are some disadvantages existing inPepsi-Cola . A survey suggests that 32% people prefer the package of Pepsi-Cola.So the design ofPepsi-Colas package is not as attractive as Coca-cola. It cool it require to be improved. We suggestthat the package needs to be designed more colorful to attract peoples attention. 3. Although in the cola market there are many competitors, Pepsi still has the opportunity toenlarge its market share because the cola in the market is quite monotonic. Most of the end user isyoung people. There are still some people who do not like the taste of the cola. So we can try to provide some other taste of cola such as adding some lemon juice. We can change the flavor inorder to meet different taste of different people. . As to the threats, all of us know that Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola have had the competition forabout 80 years. Although Pepsi-Cola have won several times during this competition, the marketshare of Pepsi-cola is a little bit smaller than Coca-Cola. Besides, there are many other competitorslike Mojo. In Mojos advertisement we can see the reflection of our culture. It is well known thatBangladesh is a patriotic nation. So these words can really gimp Bangladeshi peoples heart. Andthese local colas flavor is more desirable for Bangladeshis. So it cannot be ignored. testimony MojoAfter getting informations from the internet and local shops. It seems that Mojo has certainlackings. Mojo is local brand so its freeing to be hard for Mojo to stay in competition with Pepsi. Mojo can provide offers like buy one get one free, win a car, coupons, etc. All these activitieswill rise interests in people to consume more Mojo in order to get something. By offering suchpromotions, Mojo may be able to give tough competitions to Pepsi. Mojo can persuade people via advertising. E. g. It can convey messages that Mojo is BangladeshiDrink, We Bangladeshis drink our drinks.Not only that, motivating employees will help Akij Beverages to reach its peak. E. g. Employeescan be given hit benefits, promotions, monthly free medical check-up, etc. 24 SUGGESTIVE PROMOTIONAL TOOLS Billboards MOJO cola must concentrate on billboard advertising, for this at first they have to increase thenumber of billboards around the country. They have to create billboards with dodgy look so that itcan grab the attention of the target aspect. They must make colorful and applicable billboards so thatpeople can find out what they want to fork them.At last, they have to place the billboards in theright place so that target aspect can have their full concentrate in it. Paper Ads The number of paper ads should have to be increased. Otherwise, they cannot make mass peopleaware about their product. It should also contain high imagery, relevant with product MOJO cola. TVCs The frequencies of the TV ads have to be increased. People who watch TV on a regular basis are seekingfor innovative things made by the marketers. They pretty much bored with the traditional ads. So ifMOJO cola bring new thing with their ads them it will be a turning point for their sale.People willget more interest in their product and as a result, they can be the loyal customer of t his product. SoTV ads should be brought with a new format, with more new things so that it can catch the targetaspect with the new ones. Sponsorship Till now MOJO cola make sponsorship of few events like concerts, nabanno utsav, banglanoboborsho, etc. they should include cyber cafe, canteens of university, fast food shop and otherplaces where people goes frequently. By doing so they can be with the target audience and we illfind more aware people. Sales PromotionThey should in for massive sales promotion to attract people from other drinks Pepsi 1) Pepsi-Cola should improve the design of the package first. As it is advertised as the selection ofnew generation, the design must be looked young and fresh. So the color should be more sharpand attractive. 2) As the flavor and ingredients of cola in the market are similar and the most active consumer isthe young people, we can diversify the Pepsi production to meet the different need of theconsumers. That is customer-orientated. 3) Beside s the Diet cola for the health conscious people, we can have many other new choices.Forexample, we can create a new kind of cola more suitable for children. Maybe we can add theVitamins or some nutritious element that are necessary to children. Or we can create a new flavorlike mint-cola. 4) However, determine should not be decreased to an extent where initial investment cannot berecovered. So, pricing & finance has to be done carefully. shoemakers last Mojo People prefer MOJOs pricing but it has to improve its image in status and quality issues. Unfortunately, MOJO is lagging behind due to inadequate communication of its brand elementslike slogan, names meaning etc.It has also failed to communicate its own positioning to the targetconsumers. However, still now MOJO has the chance to recover its own position because about70% of the target customers (according to the survey result) are potential and have not constructedtheir belief structure for MOJO. For some particular aspects o f consumer behavior such asperception, attitude, self-orientation and life style etc, those recommended strategies provided withthe report will be supporting to recover those issues successfully if MOJO can apply thosesuggestive marketing tools. 6 Pepsi Being in such a tense competition with other beverages, Pepsi-Cola should not take the direct andtough attack upon any of them. The best crash is to keep a peaceful birth with it and alwayscompare with others, We should find their disadvantages and show our advantages on this aspect. Then by and by, the people would think ours is better Of course the most important rein in is toimprove the product, lower the price in comparison to other competitors to meet the consumers.