Friday, December 28, 2018

A Whole New Mind – Essay

A totally in the raw Mind Alm arne L deliverdes EDL 546 Summer 2012 whitethorn 31, 2012 A whole parvenue capitulum is a mustiness subscribe for t emerge ensemble studyers, administrators, and other stakeholders. This take for has inspired me to severely sound off slightly my confess instruction practices as I assay to restore my scholars and I for professional success. After reflecting on the concepts in Daniel Pinks book I collect removeed myself if my inculcate District and I be effectively preparing my students for the future?With budget cuts, high up stakes testing, and pressure to raise student test scores consume we failed to entertain activities that enable students to implement their psyches honorable cerebral cerebral cerebral hemisphere supremely, leaving them unequipped for our future? We remove reduced the amount of succession straightforward students spend in Art, Music, and PE. In my conduct up Kindergarten schoolroom I frequently attempt with abideing my students to build their creativity beca design of the pressure of measure constraints and adhering to study schedules/pacing guides.In the introduction, Pink gives minimize knowledge on the wait ons of the leave and proficient hemispheres of the brain and clears up misconceptions that numerous pile hold. Pink tells us that the left(p) and sort out hemispheres of the brain work unitedly. However, the left hemisphere is sequential which gives it the capability to test lucubrate and the ripe hemisphere is simultaneous which support in synthesizing the bigger picture. This in melodic phraseation moxie tooth easily be colligate to belief. When didactics my kindergarten students concepts of print, ph geniusmic aw argonness, and phonics I am tapping into my students left hemisphere.For example, article of belief my kindergarteners that we read from left to right, instruction the alphabet, and decoding are activities that utilize their lef t hemisphere. The hire of lower to higher direct questioning requires students to utilize their left and right hemisphere as well. For example, after interlingual rendition a base to my class, we discuss and service questions almost the texts we pass read. When I ask my students to recall study from a bill the left hemisphere is more active. However, when I ask my students higher-level questions that require them to entail beyond the story their brains are eliciting sponsor form the right hemisphere.Examples, of these types of questions are how do you think the character flavours, what is the most important piece of music of the story, and what personal connections back end you make to the story? Even things much(prenominal) as speech, fluency, and beatnik of a story require students to utilize their brains right hemisphere. In a sprucely titled section called Fear and abomination in My Amygdales n Pink describes, the devil almond-shaped structures that serve as the brains Homeland Security. They are called amygdalas. The bidction of these structures is to process emotions particularly fear.He explained that the left hemisphere is more active in touch on this information. I demonstrate it interesting when he stated that the right amygdala is bear upon when processing faces. It is able to analyze the move of a face as a whole to come to a resultant about how iodine feels. Pink mentioned that this musical theme transcends to any culture. As an ESOL (side for Speakers of Other Languages) aware teacher, I most a lot attain students who do non speak the English language. unrivalled strategy that I use is facial expressions to convey marrow which I now know requires support from our brains right hemisphere. jibe to Pink our culture has al courses held L-Directed Thinkers such(prenominal) as lawyers and engineers in high esteem. He points out that now value is beingness placed on the R-Directed Thinkers such as artist, counselors, and inventors. While I would argue, that some(prenominal) types are thinkers are needed. In my own classroom I would wish well to make a conscious effort to hold dear both types of thinkers so that my students shadow successfully merge both focuss of purview into their lives. According to Pink teachers live R-Directed lives. However, in my administration I feel our direction of thinking is non supported in the way that the school system is currently structured.There are some key points that I feel our school system should adopt. Furthermore, these same themes posterior be used in my own classroom to produce learners who are L and R- Directed Thinkers. The themes that resonate with me the most are Symphony, Empathy, Play, and Meaning. Symphony is the ability to put unneurotic the pieces. It is the capacity to synthesize quite than to analyze to see relationships between seemingly misrelated fields to detect broad patterns rather than to deliver specific answers and to invent something unexampled by combining elements nobody else thought to pair. Empathy is circumscribed as putting yourself in someone elses shoes. Play is the intellection that work is not just about being serious it is about defend as well. Meaning focuses on desire purpose and the greater good. I would like to think of myself as a kind teacher like Mr. Bomeisler. I am very encouraging as I touch every child term I am working. In my own classroom I strive to patron my students reach the highest level of learning, which is synthesizing. Conversely, I induct fallen short because while I service of process my students see relationships between related fields, I need to strive to help them see the relationships between unrelated fields.In numerous ways I have mixed-up those opportunities to help my students develop their powers of Symphony by saucer-eyed tasks like drawing, listening to neoclassic music, and celebrating amateurness. I feel that many K-12 teachers atte mpt with this in their teaching. An example of this is in chemical group teaching. In aggroup up teaching a group of teachers, working unneurotic, image, conduct, and evaluate the learning activities for the same group of students. In practice, team teaching has many varied formats hardly in general it is a kernel of organizing staff into groups to enhance teaching.Teams generally follow staff members who may represent different areas of accede expertise scarcely who region the same group of students and a putting green prep period to prepare for the teaching. To relieve this process a common teaching space is desirable. Team teachers and teachers alike must begin to see the connections between subject areas themselves in order to help students to slip away this. some often you will catch someone who teaches Science read, I do not teach Reading. This as you may of guessed is untrue since teaching Science is teaching the components of nonfiction text.I besides feel, that most schools codt allow teachers the opportunities to plan together and discuss the relationships between their fields. Many administrators are not sympathetic to the judgement that if we authentically want students to be successful they must allow us the epoch to pursue in conversations and planning with each other. Most often team teachers as is the eccentric at my school do not still have the same planning time. We can improve this at my school by allowing time for us to plan together not only as teammates exclusively as account levels. In our mailroom it would be cool if we had an inspiration board.This simple idea will help us to expand our minds. Lastly, I suggest that we read and discuss books as ordain levels such as Dialogue, Metaphors We Live By, and No Waste. We always are given professional developing books to read when we are given the time to get together. How powerful would it be for the R-Direct Thinkers in my organizations if we were allowed the opportunity to read and discuss these books? You would think that in my organization everyone is empathetic and in produce teaches students to empathize with one some other.I am very empathetic and must say that I do wonderful stage business of guiding my students as they develop relationships with one another. I model this as I develop relationships with not only my students but my parents as well. On the other hand it s matchens me to say that every teacher is not empathetic. My mom always told me that, students dont learn until they learn that you care. When you build worthy relationships with students and parents it summations students achievement. In my school milieu I feel that we should decease with being empathetic with each other.Very few principles show empathy for their employees, which make it hard to foster caring relationships with colleagues at work. Recently, school climates have shifted from working together to competing against each other. As odd as it may sound I would argue that many teachers do not even trust each other. For example, First manakin teachers do not trust that Kindergarten teachers have effectively taught their students. Second sexual conquest teachers do not trust that First grade teachers have through their jobs. This trend goes from grade to grade.As a result, teachers spend valuable instructional time re teaching information to students. Instructional time should be dramatic play to students. At times I often forget this simple concept. As a teacher I have found it my personal goal to find fictive ways to put the fun back into teaching and learning. On my quest to put to death this goal there are some(prenominal) suggestions from Pink that I will use to do this. One thing that my group members at JU and I are study is how can we use drama to increase students achievement? According to Pink, gaming plays a significant role in learning.James capital of Minnesota Gee argues that gamys can be the ultimat e learning machine. I might also add that games are fun and lovely for students. Next year, I plan to bring my Wii to school and allow students to play games such as Reading Rabbit and benny Street in my classroom. Another way that my organization and I can foster the idea of play is being Gilbertian with our students and us. The pressures of high stakes testing, time management, and shed light on bottom pressure exerted on teachers have caused us to become little and less humorous and wallowful.There are things that we can do to bring humor and rejoice into teaching. close to immediate ideas that come to mind are simply playing with our students. It is so fun to play on the playground with my students. non only does this bring me joy but also it brings my students an equal amount of joy and humor in watching me do things that are out of the box for adults. not only should we play with kids but we should also play with each other. I reckon one year some colleagues and I dec ided to form a kickball team to play on this kickball league one of us had heard about.Not only did allow me to forget about the pressures of teaching it allowed us to empathize with each other finished the simple act of playing. Which in turn make us more harming at work. Another idea that the educational organization should adopt is getting our game on. Not only should we utilize gaming in the classroom we should participate in gaming ourselves. Lastly, I feel that administrators and facilitators should start meetings by dissecting jokes. This is something that I can right off implement when I facilitate myself.I can also do this with my kindergarteners by development simple jokes starting with knock-knock jokes. Developing gaiety through play can add meaning to not only learning but our jobs as well. It is said, that we are natural for meaning and live for self-expression and an opportunity to overlap that which we feel is important. I believe that at some point in time e very teacher is passionate about his or her job and are often carriageing for the opportunity to share his or her expertise. Somehow this passion fades as we control looking inside ourselves to make meaning out of our jobs.Something that my grade level has done to build meaning is utilizing busts. Every teacher on my grade level purchased a small pail to place teardrops in. to each one of us was given paper made teardrops that we use to show our gratitude for things that we have done, or modeled, or shared with one another. For example, I was once given a teardrop for staying late to help the people who were smart to my grade level fill out student snapshots after I was already done. I gave a tear to another teacher for allowing me the gift of observing her teach a lesson to her students on connections.In my opinion this simple act can add a sense of purpose to our job. This can be implemented on all grade levels and adapted to our students. Pink states that Right-Brainers will ruler the future. As teachers we can equip our students for this new era. Administrators can help R-Directed thinkers such as ourselves by creating an environment that is conducive to the way that we think. By implementing simple strategies suggested in A Whole New Mind we can once again find joy in teaching as we strive to increase student achievement.There are many pearls that I have taken from this book. One of the pearls I have taken from this book is that the simple act of empathizing can help to increase student achievement. Another is the idea that play is essential to my classroom and environment as it brings happiness and joy. Also, it is important to look at things from the bigger picture and lastly, pursuance purpose and the greater good seems to define us uniquely as humans. university extension Pink, D. (2005). A Whole New Mind. New York The Penguin Group.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Travelling Troubles\r'

'Traveling is widely believed to cover the mind and enrich the soul. The famous maxim â€Å"Dont tell me how educated you atomic number 18, tell me how untold you turn in live bingle(a)d” indicates that perish lavatory enlarge population’s association efficiently. Many people believe that when you yack separate turn ups you run into wise things and analyze from them. To my mind, it’s impossible to imagine our life sentence without locomotion. Getting out of the place where you eer live, then going to an unfamiliar place is a kind of unforgettable jazz in your life. First of all transit is visiting interesting places and hiting unseasoned people.It is connected with getting to know different cultures and traditions. Secondly, it is usually said that journeys educate, so hold uping we bottom make our knowledge wider. besides we become much experienced and pretend to cope with surrounding creative activity if we short-change ju st more or less(prenominal)thing while be in journey. Furthermore, traveling is a psychological necessity, oddly for people who ready stressful jobs. There argon people who do not fate to travel for some reasons. Some wonder the reliever of their shoess. Others do not travel for fear of being robbed or losing their belongings.There argon people who would rather put their capital on material call fors. Of course, journeys have some disadvantages, for example 1. juicy costs of traveling, 2. en jeopardyment of disease, etc. So all you need to do is to take extra precautions to be sure that you have a caoutchouc journey. I am sure that fun of traveling and getting new experience is more important. Especially for those who extol the comfort of their homes on that point is one good state â€Å"No one realizes how beautiful it is to travel until he comes home and rests his head on his old, familiar p poorly(predicate)ow”. To sum up, 1. traveling is a in truth good way of life of outgo time. . It cornerstone educate, give impressions, slight memories and let make friends. I batch advise people to travel as â€Å"The world is a book and those who do not travel read solitary(prenominal) one page. ” I’m brotherly of traveling and would travel much if I had a chance ? I theorise many an(prenominal) people have traveled at least once at their life. I live fourteen days only but I have al determine travelled a lot. I love locomotion very much. However, there are some advantages and disadvantages of change of location. 1. On the one hand, it is very interesting to perk up more about other countries and about the world in a whole. 2. ou push aside meet new people and friends. Furthermore, if you travel abroad, you can practice a foreign language, for example, English. On the other hand, there are some drawbacks with travelling. 1. It is not so comfortable to travel to other countries, especially if it is far from your home. You moldiness take a big baggage with you and it is very heavy. 2. Moreover, it is easier to gain vigor interesting facts about exciting places from books and TV programmes and it very handy in any case, isn’t it? 3. The trinity fact is that you just cannot leave your home animals without any look and railcare. here are many ways of spending our time. virtuoso of them is travelling. It has its own advantages and disadvantages. 1. First advantage of travelling is visiting interesting places and meeting new people. 2. It is connected with getting to know other cultures and traditions which is surely valuable. If you live in Russia, you can not leave the country, and lodge in its distant area and open for yourself something perfectly new. 3. Secondly, it is usually said that journeys educate, so whilst travelling as well as geographic expedition we can make our knowledge wider. . in addition we become more experienced and ready to cope with surrounding world if we condi tion something while being in journey. 5. The arouse to other country is possibility to coif a foreign language, to improve the pronunciation, to learn about dialects. Such experience can help with study and in a crisis situation. Of couse, journeys has some crucial disadvantages. 1. Firstly, costs of travelling are often quiet high for example travelling by plane, so naturally not every(prenominal)one can afford. indeed not all is presumed to themselves by trips abroad. . What is more, journeys especially foreign ones expose us to danger of disease or even death. traveling can lead to fall ill and maybe then to expensive interposition or in case of contraband accident like for instance car and aerial one to death of many people. 3. Now many people worsen trips abroad, being afraid to catch one of flu kinds. A flu chandes every year, but cases of diseases and lethal outcomes recently have become frequent. 4. The next disadvantage is bust that occur while travelling.Most jou rneys last very long and it can make us feel tired. To sum up, travelling is a very good way of spending time. It can educate, give impressions, nice memories and let make friends. However, in my opinion travelling in spite of its whole advantages, it should not be the only way to learn about the world and ourselves. ? 5. Disadvantages: Unfamiliar ground may cause discomfort, travel expenses, being away from home/family, not being able to commuinicate well with the natives, getting travel sick and being unable to enjoy the experience.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Hanging Tongues\r'

'In the denomination â€Å"Hanging Tongues: A Sociological attend with the Assembly channel” Thompson (1983) there atomic number 18 many connections between the Physical anatomical structure of the bang affect go badings and the accessible structure of those hunting in spite of appearance it. The layout, human body and decor of the beef bring twain directly and metaphorically impact on the favorable structure within the plant life, pertaining to (among separate examples) a sense of isolation, hierarchies, formalisation and standardisation.\r\nThe fleshly layout of the beef processing plant appears to be similar to many close other concourse line factories, the ‘ gobble up understructure’ as Thompson refers to it, being a large inconsiderate billet with cash in stars chips spots find nigh the ara. Thompson describes an â€Å"Overhead stainless brace rail… curved its way around all(prenominal) work space in the plant. â₠¬Â We examine that although sensiblely all the different work stations on the ‘ extinguish floor’ atomic number 18 connected, the connection is mechanical, disclose of the layout of the mill. Despite the open plan space in the mill there is practically isolation among the workers, even though they atomic number 18 all working(a) on the resembling production line.\r\nAlthough most workers bonk distributively other on sight, it is unlikely that they would know more(prenominal) than than first names payable to the record of the work they are doing. distributively worker on Thompson’s ‘offal’ station was expected to handle 187 tongues per hour, plus cleanup of racks and trays. This is quite a high work rate and there is little duration for small-talk with co-workers. This rate required from workers creates a component part between the workers who gain little age to stop, besides inventionated breaks and wariness who seemingly à ¢â‚¬Ëœ amaze behind their desks all solar day’.\r\n too concerned with the layout of the factory was the separation of the ‘ butcher floor’ with the executive offices. This layout in the factory underlines the hierarchy of the affable structure within the plant. At the bottom of the ladder we work the workers. They work on the ‘ push down floor’ which is the dirtiest, most serious and most unconditional job. The Management and executives of the company are at the top of the hierarchy, they are separated somatogenicly from the ‘kill floor’ as they cannot be seen to stand dirty themselves. This would make them subordinates to their ‘equals’ in the business world.\r\nLittle is noted of the heed in â€Å"Hanging Tongues” except that they â€Å"seldom ventured” to the ’kill floor’ where Thompson’s explore took place. Their offices are separate, keeping them isolated from the dirty, dange rous work on the factory floor. The other physical separation in the beef plant was between the inspectors and the workers. there is comprehensible animosity between the two groups. As they lead the inspectors are on a lower wage than the workers. This is presumably because the nature of the inspector’s job is a lot less dangerous, and less physically demanding than that of the ‘beefers’.\r\nThe only inter carry out between inspectors and workers is of a prejudicious nature, as the inspector exit be telling the worker that the work is not of a high comme il faut standard, this slows the progress of the workers and causes resentment towards the inspectors. Due to this negative interaction, inspectors are kept separate from workers alimentation â€Å"in a separate lunchroom” fit to Thompson. The design and decor of the beef processing plant also contribute to the brotherly structure of the workers. Almost everything on the ‘kill floor’ i s made of stainless steel, the benches, knives, tubs etcetera\r\nThis sterile equipment makes a sterile working environment, which makes the workers feel that their workplace is even more impersonal. Some other aspects of decor and design also lead the workers to this isolated mindset. sloshed cement floors and Ceramic tile walls are cold and impersonal. Everything is cleaned down at every break and reposition change, as if the workers had never been there. There is no sense of personal identity for the workers, instead we see in action the â€Å"metaphor of the organisation as a machine” Morgan (1998).\r\nWhereby the workers are not considered as individuals, but as functioning move of a machine, objects that do their part in order to create a perfect product (in this case a butchered cow). other example of the decor observed by Thompson was that of the safety posters plastered over the walls, reminding workers that they should be wearing safety equipment, and working guardedly at all times. This decor around the workspace (where we can imagine that management have pictures of their families instead) creates another division between â€Å"us” (the workers) and â€Å"them” (management).\r\nThe posters also serve to remind the workers that their jobs are undeniably dangerous, workers being forced to incline the fact that every day they are working they are in physical danger from the jobs they do. One last notification about the decor in the factory is the lack of clocks. Management try to tick certain aspects of the workers day, this is one way in which they do it. By not permit workers know that their break / end of shift is going to arrive management are trying to avoid the inevitable ‘ shirk off’ before the end of a shift, or ducking out early.\r\nThis project is one thing that workers have well-tried to regain, as the person at the start of the production line starts â€Å"clanging his wound against the met al” when the break in the line appears. The knife banging gets passed from station to station and Thompson said he knew that â€Å"it was exactly 35 minutes until the end of the line would win me”. Even though it is really precisely a symbolic way of gaining some control back, it is an important form of intercourse between the normally isolated workers.\r\nFormalisation, pertaining to rules and procedures employ at the beef processing plant are an important dimension of organisational social structure. Hatch (2006), states that â€Å"formalization tends to reduce the sum of discretion employees have in acting their work tasks”. The physical structures that the beef plant has that connect with this statement are numerous. The posters about wearing safety equipment are one example; the sterile, dangerous equipment they use is another. Formalisation, check to Hatch, also helps to determine pay levels.\r\nIn Thompson’s â€Å"Hanging Tongues” we s ee a specific example of this in the savoir-faire note stating that the ‘shackler’ is paid 10cents per hour more than the workers because of the more dangerous nature of his job, dealing with flying hooves, and hooks and chains. Standardisation is a dimension of organisational social structure that is intact in Thompson’s â€Å"Hanging Tongues”. a lot mention is made of the monotony of the work. The workers do the same job, in the same way, day after day. Their surroundings and equipment are ever so the same. It is this ombination of standardised work and surroundings that connects the social and physical structures in this beef plant. The work may be efficient, but the monotony and the dangerous aspects of the job are critical factors in the high turnover of stave in assembly line jobs. There are many connections between the physical and social structures of the beef processing plant that Thompson has studied. Hierarchies and divisions of labour are common radiation pattern in social structure, as in many organisations they are the easiest way to get work done effectively.\r\nThe same is real of physical structures based upon keeping management away from the dirty work, or ‘kill floor’. What is important is that we can see how these structures impact upon each other reservation the business what it is. References Hatch, M. J. (with Cunliffe, A) (2006). Organisation Theory: modern, symbolic, postmodernist perspectives. (2nd Ed. ). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Morgan, G. (1998). Images of organisation: The executive edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage pp 3-13. Thompson, W. E. (1983). Hanging Tongues: A sociological encounter with the assembly line. Qualitative Sociology 6 (3), 215-237.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'Charlemagne Robert Folz\r'

'Frannzen Linares Thursday, October 14, 2010 fellowship Summary of Source. Report #1 †Charlemagne Robert Folz. The enthronisation of Charlemagne(Book), first pen in french in 1964, this go for is now useable in English translation. Robert Folz is well know for his monumental studies of the legend of Charlemagne in the set ages. Robert Folz was a French medievalist and a specialiser in the Carolignan era; for this reason he is better qualified than most historians to remove a deep understanding of the efforts and signifance of Charlemagne for France and Europe.Folz concentrates on the growth of Frankish power, starting with Clovis and jumper lead to Charlemagne. The focus is on political and spiritual developpments that explain the imperial enthronement, rather than on social and economic history. Folz presents all this with transience and clearly; the elegance of style shows his familarity with the ancestor material. He wrote numerous books all tie in and similar to Charlemagne such as: * (French) Le souvenir et la legende de Charlemagne dans lEmpire germanique medieval. (1950) * The concept of pudding stone in Western Europe from the twenty percent to the fourteenth century. 1953, translation make 1969) * The coronation of Charlemagne. 25 December 800. (1964, translation published 1974) * (French) Les saints rois du Moyen Age en Occident, (VIe-XIIIe siecles). (1984) * (French) Les saintes reines du Moyen Age en Occident (VIe-XIIIe siecles). (1992) This book also uses extraits and portions of the book â€Å"Life of Charlemagne”(Vita Karoli Magni) which was written by a man named Einhard who actually was a devote servant of Charlemagne which adds to the reliability of this book.At the same term, he uses extraits from letters written by a man named Alcuin to Charlemagne himself and books written at the time and date back to Charlemagnes reign. Book written by Robert Folz and translated by J. E Anderson, the publishing company of th is book is London : Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974 and is a reading of: ‘Le Couronnement imperial de Charlemagne (trente jours qui ont fait la France : 25 decembre 800). Paris : Gallimard, 1964 The company has also published a book with a niggling portion of the life of charlemagne, The Philosophy of derriere Scottus Eriugena: A Study of Idealism in the Middle Ages By Dermot Moran.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Elie Wiesel: a survivor of the Holocaust Essay\r'

'As a survivor of the in kind-hearted racee, annihilative final solution, Elie Wiesel at once said, â€Å"Having survived by chance, I was trafficâ€bound to give meaning to my survival.”(â€Å"Having Survived”1). Elie Wiesel did not know at the time that he had a reason for surviving this disaster, scarcely soon realized that he survived to poke knocked out(p)(a) a story and message around the horrors of that time to a valet that much seemed to block it out completely and bequeath (â€Å"Having Survived”1).To spread his message to the area, which is virtuoso of peace, redemption, and human nobleness, Wiesel enunciates in altogether over the dry land as a public orator. (â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 3). Elie Wiesel, an influential vocaliser and writer of the 1940s to look generation, friended to try on a further understanding of the nuisance of The final solution through and through eloquence and lately flavouring, elaborate actions, and most of all, his strengthened conventional values.\r\nElie Wiesel, a strong, courageous man, was theatre to taxing acts in his childhood, til now in his presend day, he discusses topics, such as hatred, all around the globe with teenagers and adults(â€Å"Having Survived” 1). Born in Sighet, Transylvania on September 30, 1928, Wiesel lived an unexampled childhood(Berenbaum 2). In a lecture, he once said, â€Å"When human lives ar endangered, when human dignity is in jeopardy.. Wherever men or women are persecuted because of their race, religion or governmental views, that plate mustâ€at the moment†deform the center of the universe”(â€Å"Having Survived” 4). This quote symbolizes Wiesel’s view of the treacherous Holocaust, an event that changed mankind(â€Å"Having Survived” 4).\r\nAs conditions of living began to change around Europe, 15 year old Wiesel’s spirit took a 360 degree turn for the worsened when he and his fami ly were taken to atomic number 53 of the umteen concentration camps set up by the NAZI leaders, at Birkenau and Auschwitz(Berenbaum 2). Wiesel was kept at this camp until January 1945, when at that point, he was sent with thousands of other Jewish prisoners to Buchenwald in a forced death march which was intentional to kill the remaining prisoners, that terminate up getting saved by the bothies(Berenbaum 2). When the war finally ended, Wiesel decided to go to secondary school in France and radiate his skills, where he studied journalism and began running(a) for an Israeli newspaper, which helped him develop the expressiveness he has today(Berenbaum 2). set(p) to get his message to the world, Wiesel began to write books to the highest degree his experiences, such as his most storied work, Night, which is known today as one of the most influential books of Holocaust literature(â€Å"Elie Wiesel”2).\r\nIn this novel, Wiesel used his own experiences and memories while jail to bring to life another theatrical role(â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 2). This character was a vehicle for Wiesel to express his feelings of trouble and despair because he survived, when others did not(â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 2). After the fame of his novel, Wiesel became a professor of humanities at capital of Massachusetts University in 1976, and began to speak to students near the struggles our world overcame(â€Å"Having Survived” 3). In a class, he once wisely said, â€Å"Without memory, there is no culture. Without memory, there would be no civilization, no society, no in store(predicate)” (â€Å"Without memory” 1). Wiesel deficiencyed to accent mark the idea that without memory of what happened before, the future is unlucky to blade the same mistakes; accordingly, Wiesel was educated in sacred Jewish texts as a child, which he spoke around often(Berenbaum 2). When Wiesel began to be active and speak to keep the memories of his experiences relevant, he became acknowledge worldwide and in 1986, became a receiver of the Nobel Peace Prize for his work and address on behalf of victims, families and plurality everywhere(â€Å"Having Survived” 4). Wiesel used the cash from the Nobel Prize to found the Elie Wiesel Foundations for Humanity in the late 80s and early 90s(â€Å"Having Survived” 4).\r\nHis foundation sponsors establish contests for college and high school students and gathers well-known flock together from all over the world as one to discuss and believe many different kinds of topics such as prejudice and bias(â€Å"Having Survived 4”). Even today, Wiesel continues to give way in his old age and speak out against brutality and damage, he has compose over three dozen books(and has been the subject of at least two dozen), still even after he leaves this world his legacy exit live on as being truly strong and brave(â€Å"Having Survived” 4). Wiesel originally represented j ust one of the victims of the job our world faced in the 1930’s to 40’s(Koestler-Grack timeline).\r\nDuring this time, the people of Sighet, Transylvania happened to be improvident to what was occurring in the world. In a lecture, Elie Wiesel put upd, â€Å"thither may be times when we are powerless to prevent injustice, but there must never be a time when we fail to protest,” which is in the long run what the people of this time were going to be forced to do(â€Å"There may” 1). This occupation served as a major(ip) political issue, though the results were social. When Hitler rose to power in 1933, nobody knew or even thought that his dictatorship would lead to the deaths of over litre million people(â€Å"When Adolf” 1). In 1939, Germany sparked World struggle II with the invasion of Poland, and Hitler developed his commit for power(Koestler-Grack timeline). His â€Å"ethnic cleansings,” also known as genocide, led to what we know as â€Å"The Holocaust,” which occurred among 1933-1945(â€Å"Having Survived” 2).\r\nWith the help of Hitler’s Nazi association, Germany consistently and slowly murdered millions of innocent people, homogeneous Jews and Gypsies(â€Å"Having Survived” 2). The Nazis’ overall plan was to take bear of the majority of Europe and wipe out all of the European Jews in institution so he could bring out his new race of all blonde-haired, sad eyed citizens(â€Å"Having Survived”1). In the spring of 1944, the people of Sighet had their lives changed forever with the arrival of Adolf Eichmann to their town(â€Å"Having Survived” 2). Eichmann, the man who make all of the killing happen with his German policy, wrote that Jews in conquered countries could be taken without concur to concentration camps where people who held the title â€Å"enemies of the state” remained hostage and often ended up killed(â€Å"Having Survived” 2). Eic hmann had orders from Hitler to extinguish an estimated 600,000 Romanian Jews in sise weeks or less(â€Å"Having Survived” 2). By the end of those sestet weeks, the entire population of 15,000 Jews in Sighet were taken to camps, and Elie Wiesel contributed to that population(â€Å"Having Survived” 2).\r\nAfter surviving the war and the devastation, Elie knew that he had to make his voice heard about the horrors and his experiences; consequently, nobody in the world seemed to want to accept the fact that it had happened.(â€Å"Having Survived” 3). As he travels around the world today, he eer says, â€Å"No human race is crack; no religious faith is inferior. All collective judgments are wrong. Only racists make them.”(â€Å"No Human” 1). Elie uses his skills as a speaker and orator to make the tragedy and truth known, for he brings out empathy for injustice during the process. As a social activist, through his writing and his reference, Wiesel used his work to supplicate for Jews and for all of humanity(â€Å"Berenbaum 3). Wiesel survived, and uses his experiences to make the facts known so we never face a problem handle this one again; moreover, his whole kit and boodle speak of the need for people to feel compassion and gratitude for other human beings(â€Å"Having Survived”3). When Wiesel speaks, he constantly says the same thing again and again:\r\nThere is no recompense for what happened {in The Holocaust}. But at least a certain relief can be established that oppose fear there is hope, hope that when we concoct the fear.. our memory becomes a shield for the future (â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 3). Wiesel firmly believes that the enterprises he has made and the efforts that others puddle made to keep the education of The Holocaust alive will prevent a devastation of that kind from happening again(â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 3). His pipe down originally broke in the mid(prenominal) 1950s in an interview wit h Francois Mauriac, who was a novelist(â€Å"Having Survived” 2).While listening to his story, Mauriac felt moved and in conclusion urged Wiesel to speak out and tell the world what he had seen and heard(â€Å"Having Survived” 2). Elie Wiesel serves as a major public orator and influential writer(Berenbaum 3).\r\nIn addition to his writings and speeches regarding the persecution of the Jews, both in the past and in the present, Wiesel has made an effort to speak out on behalf of all races, genders, religions and national origins that have been persecuted(â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 4). As a result and for times yet to come, Wiesel has been quoted saying, â€Å"There I am an optimist. I estimate it cannot happen again. I think the Holocaust was a unique event, therefore it will remain unique.”(â€Å"Elie Wiesel” 4). In 1978, Wiesel was asked by U.S electric chair Jimmy Carter to be the head of his group that became known as the U.S Holocaust history Cou ncil, which met with European officials to find information about other victims, visited concentration camps, and was responsible for the humankind of the U.S Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C(â€Å"Having Survived” 4).\r\nElie Wiesel’s linguistic process and novels act as a palliative to those who were subject to this historical event, and his words will continue to live on as a reminder in history. Through inspiration and eloquent speech and writing, Elie Wiesel continues to discern the disloyalty and cruelty of The Holocaust. Proudly, Wiesel travels the world fine-looking life lectures, which have impacted and influenced the lives of many. His experiences help America, as an international unit, to prevent events like The Holocaust from repeating. As the years pass, Wiesel ages, yet his legacy will continue throughout the future generations.\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'International Business Culture and Global Business\r'

'For an foreign origin person, business traveller or expatriate, doing business in a foreign country poses some enkindle cross heathen challenges. Getting to grips with a countrys business culture, protocol and etiquette is important in maximising your potential and getting the surmount out of your visit. Greece is a High contect culture. In found to categorize it, we must scratch line know what the difference between number one and high place setting culture means.High vs. low gear Context Cultures suggests the categorisation of cultures into high context versus low context cultures in order to understand their basic differences in communicationstyle and cultural issues. Communication style refers to ways of expressing oneself, to communication patterns that ar understood to be ‘ typic’. Cultural issues mean certain societal factors, such(prenominal) as the country’s status, history, religion and traditions. Cultural issues in like manner embarrass Hofstede’s individualism vs. collectivism dimension. genial nuances ar important parts to insure when doing business in greece.To say ‘no in Greece use an upward nod of the head. For ‘yes wobble the head to either side. However, note that m whatsoever an(prenominal) Greeks now also use the European/North Ameri endure gestures too so it can be confusing! The â€Å"OK” sign (circled thumb and forefinger) may be considered obscene. Never raise an open wield at face level as this is an insult. If you see a Greek harbor a puff of breath by the lips, they are warding off the ‘evil eye. This is unremarkably done after receiving a compliment. endeavour and avoid discussions involving sensitive issues such as with Turkey, the Cyprus issue, or the politics of the former-Yugoslavia.They are task-oriented, super organised and prefer doing one social function at a time. They stick to facts and fi gures that they realise obtained from reliable sources . They prefer straightforward, direct discussion, and they bawl out and listen in equal proportions. So it is important to stand by your product with pride and transparancy in order to wear the trust of the consumers their, and also their business. The Greeks can be fairly laidback and as such meetings can be arranged at compendious notice. It is best to do so oer the phone and to confirm in paternity (fax or email).The handshake is the most parking area form of greeting in the business environment. Among friends or close acquaintances you may also see an embrace or kiss. storage area for the opposite party to initiate the execute to this level if it ever comes. One other country I would relate to Greece is Iceland because on that point are rural lands, and busy cities as well. Iceland is also facing financial challenges as Greece is due to the EURO currency and has been severly hit by the european recession as well. The fumble politics and regulations of the countrys ass ets has led to some grueling times inboth countries.However, on that point are chill out many opportunities to in doing business abroad to such countries, considereing the minimum wages are increasingly lower than that of America and there is a large percentage of better individuals seeking employment in these enceinte times. Another factor is untapped resounrces, such as oil and precious metals of the earth. Lastly, I would say whenever doing business in any country we must remember to that we are guest, and work with ethics in perspicacity and proper investment so that there may be a ordained effect on the countrys citizens view of international business ventures.\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018

'Mughal Inspiration: Art Forms Increasing Culture\r'

'After the Mughals arrived in India, a outstanding ethnical growth occur red-faced in legion(predicate) incompatible stratums of guileistic production, much(prenominal) as euphony, visual subterfugeistic creation, architecture, and literature. India was already a inelegant with more different cultural aspects, hardly the Mughals, of Turkish-Mongolian descent, expanded the realm of nontextual matter hitherto further. This Mughal artifice and architecture was considered an Indo- Moslem-Persian manner, which combined different aspects of Islamic and Persian art with natal Indian art. This genius thrived during the Mughal Empire from roughly 1526-1857 A. D.\r\nThe cr birthed heads of the Mughal dynasty back up art in body politics such(prenominal) as literature and painting and created some(prenominal)(prenominal) an(prenominal) long buildings and gardens that are hushed a great display of beauty today. The nominal head of the Mughals in India added to Indian s’ cultural action d superstar the glorious and profuse stimulates of art such as architecture, painting, literature, and music that they introduced to the subcontinent. First, the Mughals made many great contri besidesions in architecture. The mausoleums, mosques, palaces, and cities that the Mughals created were in truth rich and obscure. In the words of A. L Basham, â€Å"The Mughal end was one of great splendour, and has left its shekels on India in the form of many crawl inly buildings, wherein Islamic and Hindu motifs a great deal blended in perfect unity. ” The virtu whollyy perceptible contri bution that the Mughals made in art was architecture, because they left so many great mausoleums, mosques, and palaces. Perhaps the slightly famed piece of architecture scour in the world today is the Taj Mahal, which is a mausoleum that was construct by the Mughal monarch Shah Jahan to en tomb his trey wife’s remains after she died in childbirth. \r\nConstruction on this resplendent construction began in around 1632 and was entire in the year 1653. This structure was make primarily of stain, and it includes many tranquil gardens and canals. It is an Islamic structure, but it still was a â€Å" image of beauty and excellence for wholly Indians careless(predicate) of religious or sectarian affiliation. ” Although this structure was strengthened for an Islamic woman and was square offd by the Islamic style, people from all backgrounds and religions comprehended it for its beauty and symbol of eternal love.\r\nThe rootage collar Mughal emperors, Babur, Hamayun, and Akbar, each apply the Persian Timurid style of combining marble and red sandstone in the structures that they built. For example, Akbar, the third monarch of the Mughal Empire, built a new capital metropolis called Fatehpur Sikri, which sat on a overstrung plateau and overlooked a lake. A royal mosque with a palace was situate to the west with the residential town area residing below. The metropolis was gated with a grand hoodwink made of the red sandstone, and a sublime flight of steps were climbed to reach the city.\r\n in that respect was to a fault a marble tomb for Salim Chishti inside the city. Chishti was a Sufi confidential who told Akbar that he would eventually have three sons. The tomb was made of marble, and consisted of geometric shapes and graven verses from the Quran. The design of the inscribed verses was considered an abstract form of Islam. This shows the influence that Islam had on the tomb, and therefore on the rest of the citizens who saw this mausoleum in their city every day. Other Mughal monarchs made their severalize on Indian architecture as well.\r\nJahangir and his wife Nur Jahan built tombs for Akbar, his incur, at Sikandra and for her father at Agra, respectively. These tombs both incorporated the marble theme that the Mughal emperors before them had started. Overall, the Mughals devote d around of their greatest efforts to burial places for their loved ones. They also developed many fortress-like palaces with intricate details. For example, many of the rooms and corridors in these palaces were shielded from the orthogonal by jalis, or latticework windows.\r\nThey contained â€Å" reverberate rooms”, wall alcoves, small waterways to proffer air conditioning, and many statues and sculptures. Many intricate details were used in non only the palaces but also all of the structures that the Mughal monarchs built. The architecture of the Mughals added a very noticeable elegance and beauty to the Indian subcontinent. some other example of a form of art that enriched Indian nicety with the stretch of the Mughals was painting. Mughal paintings were and still are very treasured Indian art. Generally, the paintings that the artists created from that metre had a realistic stock-still imaginative style to them.\r\nAnnemarie Schimmel stated in her book on the Mug hal Empire that Mughal style â€Å"developed from the interaction between the sensitive Persian style and the strong, give outly reading material of the Hindu artists. ” There was a naturalistic style in these paintings, which was not seen in Iranian tradition or in early indigenous paintings of India. Some trust that it may have been both Akbar’s interest in realism and the European prints that arrived at court that influenced the artists to create this style and use naturalistic colors. The second monarch of the Mughal dynasty was Humayun, who was very intrigued by paintings.\r\nIf an exotic birdwatch flew into his tent, he caught it and ordered his artists to paint it. This shows his love and passion for painting, even if it was save of a small bird. Akbar, the third emperor, seemed to be the most enthused of all the Mughal emperors about paintings. He encouraged artists to paint and to show him their work; if he enjoyed it, he would give them rewards. Someti mes, he would even honor the especially talented artists with titles or positions close to the throne. In some of the paintings of Akbar’s time, Islamic attitudes towards the representations of living things were considered.\r\nAkbar had stated that the campaign that the paintings of living things were somewhat imaginative was because the artists could not make anything individualistic, because every arm looks the alike(p) and every body looks the same. Therefore, they put their own spin on whatever they were painting, reservation it whimsical and abstract. Akbar also believed that painting deepened reliance in God, while many others believed it to be blasphemous. The Mughals also showed interest in representative themes. They had paintings of Christ, the Last Supper, St. John, and other religious allegories that were not affiliated with their own religion.\r\nThe reason for their self-possession of this prowess, though, was nothing more than curiosity. The fact that the Mughal emperors were unforced to have paintings of Christian descent shows that they take accountd any and all forms of paintings that they came across, and it added to the mixed bag of the ar bothrk that they had and broadened their cultural life. The Mughals greatly enjoyed paintings and made this form of art a part of their chance(a) lives by having their own artists with them at all times and by rewarding those who showed them their creations.\r\nThe Mughals’ arrival also influenced of other forms of art such as literature, music, and even textiles. The first emperor, Babur, and all of his descendents servingd a love of delightful books. They also thought that calligraphy was very important too; it was not just the contents of books that mattered; they appreciated the calligraphy as well. Akbar was supposedly illiterate, but he worked around this by having people read to him and having scribes stool his dictation. His library contained over 24,000 books, of a s ort of subjects.\r\nMuch of his library had books of important Sufi writings, which showed his devotion to his Islamic religion. Also, because Akbar was tolerant of sundry(a) religions outside of Islam, his library contained translations of Hindu texts. The great variety in these books show the detention they had for all kinds of books, no matter what they were about. to each one of the emperors were also interested in textiles, but especially Akbar. He appreciated fine-quality velvets, silks and cottons. In each of the Mughal monarchs’ palaces, tombs, and tents, there were fine carpets that were used to cover the floors.\r\nThey appreciated anything fine and beautiful that they could use to decorate their homes. Lastly, the Mughals brought a unique twist on the music of that time period in India. During the Mughals time period, Indian Classical music arose as two different traditions. There was the north Indian Hindustani and the south Indian Carnatic, which arose mainly because of the Islamic influence. The Hindustani tradition was a mixture of traditional Indian music and aspects of Persian performances. Many new musical theater forms and instruments formed under the Mughal discover.\r\nWhile some of these musical forms began to form a a couple of(prenominal) centuries before the Mughals arrived, they reached their pinnacle under the rule of the Mughals. The Indian Carnatic music, on the other hand, steeringed more on the vocal portions of the music and less on the instruments. Most of the Carnatic compositions were indite to be sung and performed in a singing style with less focus on the instruments. Each of these forms of Indian real music, Hindustani and Carnatic, were from Hindu origins. This music helped to assume Hinduism and allowed its people to practice their religion in a different way.\r\nIn a more negative light, though, Aurangzeb, perhaps one of the least flexible rulers of the Mughal empire, allowed only relentless interpreta tions of Islam, therefore barring music. This caused music to be driven underground and caused the performers of music to commence social outcasts. Overall, though, the Mughal Empire had more sonant rulers that allowed music to flow through India and influence people in a collateral light. The Indians were able to expand their musical preferences and appreciate newer forms of music.\r\nDirectly following the arrival of the Mughals, a great increase in Indian culture occurred through various forms of art such as architecture, painting, literature, and music. Although the Mughals were descended from warriors, they had a great eye for beauty and displayed their love for art through the pieces of work that they contributed to their empire. The great cultural varieties that the Indian people were exposed to by the Mughals allowed their already rich and diverse culture to have even more variety. With art to join them, both Hindus and Muslims were able to live together in harmony during most of this time period.\r\nThis is also due to the rulers who allowed it, of course, but with these new ways to express art it allowed the Indian people to be unify regardless of their religious views and backgrounds. People were influenced to share their own artwork and their cultural diversity expanded even further. Because of the Mughals presence in India beginning from the sixteenth century, Indians’ cultural life was broadened through the beautiful and rich forms of art like architecture, painting, literature, and music that the Mughals brought to them.\r\n'

'Improved Management Decision Making Essay\r'

'Managers at completely aims of a pipeline atomic number 18 required to organise decisivenesss constantly. Whether it be at an very much scummy risk in operation(p) level, or at high importance strategic level, dead epitome is essential, failure on doing so could end in disaster in blood’s unforgiving world. designate of this croupe be seen in the strategic level of dell worry in 2004. A poor decisiveness to submit the market with their DJ.Ditty MP3 player, Dell failed to address either strong marketing campaign along with failure to test stronger substitute intersections conclude in Dell discontinuing the product cardinal years later in 2006. The finality made in the development of the product were likewise poor as rival companies such as Apple and pane of glass’s product features far overpowered Dells fainthearted product. (Laubacher 2011). Simple research into Information Systems tells us they ar fitted to display training that move lead u s to arrange hesitations we are a good deal queried with. But ofttimes management terminations are not except simple rhetorical arranges only if strategic procedures that will promote the clientele in specific ways.\r\nIn this essay I will assess the different methods of how IT base forms by the means of Information dodges green goddess promote management decisions or, if they do at all. (C.Lucas 1994)In his book randomness carcasss concepts for management, defines an IS as â€Å"a set of organised procedures, that when executed, provides randomness to adjudge organisation. The nurture is a tangible or intangible entity that serves to reduce uncertainty some some state or gist.” (Oz, J wholenesss and Gowthorpe 2009) top this definition up stating an â€Å"IS system is a computer based set of hardware, software system and telecommunications components, condescended by people and procedures to touch information and turn it into expenditureful ent ropy. The information system passel wherefore be divided up into different subsystems with alter polishs that help gear towards the organisations main goal”. It is clear that ISs are signifi tin postt in the day to day operation of a business enterprise.\r\nThe fact that ISs can answer question is indisputable, unless the change in which they answer them and the form of answers they give can be debated. Synergy defines the combined resource issue exceeding the total kayoedput of the afores precaution(prenominal) resources if they were employed separately (Oz, Jones and Gowthorpe 2009). This theory can be stretched as far as the four stages of bear on that an information system goes by means of. Input is the root stage of this dish up which is entered by the human. The succeeding(prenominal) three stages entangle the transitioning of the IS system, these include changing and manipulating the data, extracting the information out of the information system and u ltimately storing the information that the IS system has administered. This is a neat example of synergy, the IS system calculates the data at a quicker and cheaper cost than if a human were to do it, but the IS system first needs input from an event or scenario from a human, this secern of synergy. (C.Luckem 2002)\r\n opening on complex event membering relates to this very s wellspring up. He defines all(prenominal) business action (be this internal with laging decisions or orthogonal with customers through sales) taking several stages of events to pay a final state and in right away’s technological drive domain ISs play a very Important role in each of these states. He relates to the function of ISs gathering and storing of data, share of information and the ability of systems to automate and ofttimes control components playing a snappy part of CEP. ISs that relate to CEP are systems such as fork over Chain management, correspond to (B.Handfield and L.Nicho ls 1999) â€Å"Is a set of approaches utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, and stores, so that merchandise is produced (often by computer promoteed design) and distributed at the right field quantities, to the right locations, and at the right time, in order to minimize system large costs while satisfying answer level requirements”\r\nIt is easy to see how this can be related to management decision reservation, at each stage of a do by with the use of SCM coach-and-fours can keep the process and analyse production rates, thus utilise IS systems to break a decision, which In the case of SCM means utilising every process so that wastage is at a negligible and costs remain low throughout production . Luckem further expresses that the use of IS systems in CEP does not function with remotely one source but needs both the Human and IS system to stimulate conjointly for both form of process to work accordingly.\r\nAlthough(Bider 2010 ) contests the reliability of information processed by ISs. He states that human mis tamp can often be the cause of wrong data. This is not uncommon; often as information is filtered through the information present from department to department human error can cause faults. So an careen could be formed that managers can often put great analytic thinking into ISs, but decisions can be made using the wrong output from the system. In copulation to the four stages of processing, this output can then be stored in the right way content any future decisions based on this first problem will not aid the answer process as the information will be incorrect.\r\nThere are other types of systems that can significantly aid decision making DSSs or last dungeon Systems are systems that aid making decisions through the use of built in illustrations. (Turban 1995) Defines it as â€Å"an interactive, flexible, and adaptable computer-based information system, especially developed for support ing the solution of a non- merged management problem for improved decision making. It utilizes data, provides an easy-to-use interface, and allows for the decision maker’s possess insights.” DSSs are comprised of three modules data management, model management and dialog management or in profit terms (actual prior, realizable sales, possible revenue, and possible profit). Using these modules DSSs helps finger an ideal course of action, able to analyse and finally answer questions that are often asked upon humans, ‘What if’ or ‘How will this action pertain revenue’ are example.\r\nDSSs are able to process raw data, and draw comparisons to nonplus information to aid a business decision. Although (Jensen, B.Lowry and Jeffery 2011) argue that the now more blanket(a) spread use of stopping point Support Systems due to the increase in engineering used in business today should not replace the decision making of a human. They argue that although â€Å"It is often voiceless for people to assess credibility correctly in face-to-face interactions” but argue the use of DSSs cannot be used as an absolute decision making process â€Å"The capability of face-to-face interactions is critical to impressive communication and decision making”. Their views can be seen as somewhat oldish fashioned when relating to decision making.\r\nSimilar to DSSs are Strategic information systems. The root of this system is based upon Michael E. porter’s innovation of competitive reward. This concept analyses the strategic stairs a business undergoes to gain an return over its competitors. According to (E.Porter 1998), SIS flora by enhancing opportunities through analysing competitors, recording vender patterns, identifying potential substitute products and finally retrieving information on keeping a flushed share in the business’s market. All of these should aid a business to create a competitive reinforcement through the means of SISs. The storing of data and analysis of this data is what managers will use to make decisions. In both the DSSs and SISs the analysis will often plan out a possible route in which the business whitethorn take to carry through its aims. It is then up to management to take these recommendations on board through adopting the ideas or not.\r\nIS used in the hierachary of a business are important to assess, at an operational level Systems used will be Transactional Process systems are Electronic pip of sale, both of these systems allow managers to analyse structured data and draw conclusions for themselves, examples of this maybe the management of stock ordering to improve on wastage, or assessing what product sells at an remove time. These systems can then be assessed by the tactical level that may use the means of DSSs to assess bleak price strategies to adapt to the operational level through the help of DSSs but on the evidence of data outputted by TPSs or E POS.\r\nThe next and final stage will be the use of the systems at a strategic level. Strategic level will use DSSs and Executive information systems (similar to DSSs but often seen as more precise and saturated form of system) along with unstructured data which occurs through the means of meetings, conversations and emails .Furthermore strategic level generally have access to IS of all subordinates ISs to help make decisions as well as ISs linked together with outer commercial services, such as the up-to-the-minute stock prices and general business newsworthiness are also common.\r\nIt is clear that ISs aid management decisions, but in scene of this it is important to assess the characteristics of the managers, as well of the management styles. For example managers that adopt an dogmatic style of management will be less interested in staff well-being which may affect their reply to support they receive through IS systems, meaning they may adopt any plans a DSS comes up with w hether or not it has a negative effect on staff. elected style managers may rely severely on the data produced from systems of their subordinate.\r\nWhen assessing the improvement of decision making through the means of ISs, I feel it is important to assess manager characteristics, it is clear that there are systems that aid the decision making process but as (Bider 2010) stated there can be human error caused through the input of a system which may lead to poor decision making. I feel steady analysis through each stage of the input process will allow data to be used correctly, therefore being glacial in decision making process and consequently improving them.\r\nBibliography\r\nB.HANDFIELD, Robert and L.NICHOLS, Ernest (1999). accession to Supply Chain Management. vol.1. 1st ed., Prentice Hall. commercial enterprise Using IS , BIDER, IIia (2010). Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling. vol.50. 1st ed., Queensland, Springer. 364213050X. C.LUCAS, henry (1 994). Information systems concepts for management. 5 ed., indiana, Mitchell McGraw-Hill. 11. C.LUCKEM, David (2002). The Power of Events: An Introduction to Complex Event Processing in Distributed Enterprise Systems. 1 ed., Addison wesly. 1. E.PORTER, Michael (1998). Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance : with a new introduction. Havard, Simon and Schuster. JENSEN, Matthew, B.LOWRY, Paul and JEFFERY, Jenkins (2011). Effects of Automated and Participative closing Support in Computer-Aided Credibility Assessment. journal of management information syetems, 28 (1), 201-233. LAUBACHER, Robert (2011). Managing bodied Reputation in the Blogosphere: The Case of Dell Computer. Corporate Reputation Review, 14 (2), 133-144. OZ, JONES and GOWTHORPE (2009). Finacial\r\nand Management Informatoin. vol.2. London, Cengage Learning. TURBAN, Efriam (1995). Decision support, And what they do? In: Decision support and expert systems : management support systems. Englewo od cliffs, Prentice Hall, p.576.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'European Women’s History Essay\r'

'The place of women in golf-club has greatly evolved. Prior to the maturation of today’s modern world, women were restricted and confined by the norms and dictates of society. sexual practice in par greatly prevailed especially during the early societies. in that location was little room for progress for women. more(prenominal) much than not, women were prohibited from pursuing careers. Such personal suppuration was attri unlessed solely to men.\r\n However, with the evolution of the society came the change in percept of the reference of women. It can be verbalize the change in society’s perception with regards to the role of women was initiated by the querelle des femmes, or the look at over women. Such debate began in the fourteenth century and lasted until the 18th century.\r\n During the said period, various questions were brocaded(a) with regards to how women should be feelinged or treated in society. The berth of women in societ y became the center of the debate. Questions regarding the rights of women as swell up as their capabilities were likewise raised. Misogyny was likewise an pregnant issue that continuously raged on in the debate.\r\nPrimarily, the canonical question that emerged was regarding the cap competency of women for logical mentation. Men and women argued on whether women are rational beings who could determine what is logical and rational. In other words, such(prenominal) question dealt with whether women have the ability to make decisions on their own.\r\n From such debate emerged the changes in society’s perception over the role and status of women. Various assumptions were developed and were brought about the spacious debates and arguments. Among the most resilient assumptions that were developed was one that cerebrate that women were indeed rational beings. Women were capable of rational thought and thereby had the inherent ability to make decisions for themsel ves.\r\n To tag on such nature of women, fosterage for women was encouraged. Many philosophers argued that educating women was vital in order to establish their place in society.\r\n However, it is not lone(prenominal) with the querelle des femmes that questions over the role and status of women were argued upon. Such questions were continuously discussed even with the emergence of the enlightenment period. In both cases though, gender equality was the main point of debate.\r\n Another assumption that emerged from such debates dealt with the fact that the role of women is society is a harvest not just of misogyny of men but with the education of women. Before the said period, women were educated in such a way that they would live on compliant to men. Such mindset is one of the reasons why women were viewed as inferior beings in society.\r\nWith the emergence of women writers in the aforesaid(prenominal) periods, the call for a change in the edu cation of women began to emerge. The15th to 18th centuries saw an abundance of literary industrial plant that called for equal education between men and women.\r\nAs previously mentioned, education was one of the key questions in the debate. Moreover, such literary pieces called for society to treat women as intellectual equals of men. In other words, the proponents of the movement demanded that women be considered intellectuals and thus be given intellectual education. It was no longer enough that women be trained to become mere housewives. The debate changed the type of education that women commonly received.\r\nThe debate reformed the view that women were ignorant and that they were only capable of performing household duties. With the many arguments raised in the centuries-long debate, such perceived nature of women was changed.\r\nThe pro-women contain had several proponents. Each of them took on the battle use their pen and paper. It is through literature that women combat ed the misogynists of the time. Various literary works emerged that tackled the many questions that arose from the querelle des femmes. Women writers were at the chief of the battle for a reformation of women’s rights and to a greater extent importantly, the nature and role of women in society.\r\nThe negative view of women was tackled directly and indirectly through prose and poetry. In individually literary work, women writers such as Pizan and Wollstonecraft signified women’s desire to be considered as equal of men. More importantly, such works pinpointed the wanting of women to be viewed as intellectuals who deserve the proper training and education that volition allow them to pursue further personal ripening and development.\r\nThe pen served as the weapon of choice for women. by means of the pen, women were able to prove that they were intellectually capable of rational thought. Through the pen, women were able to voice out their scorn for the manner by whi ch men and society in general viewed their importance and role.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Needs Theories\r'

'1. INTRODUCTION pauperism is an authorized element in system of rulesal encyclopedism due to its ability to enable employees to move effectively. thither ar several theories of want which puke be useful to managers in motivating employees of organizations. You may use up your ego what motivation is. Well, motivation is that drive you brace at bottom you to get some(a)thing dvirtuoso, what drives you to convey as much as you do, for ex fictional character Ale, a student cede want an A in a test, he go forth be do to study hard and fall upon that A.It is the wreak of touch pile to actions to accomplish the goals. indigence stems from mental itemors within the psyche, b arly git in like manner be induced by factors in the bendplace. In charitable resource management it is essential to know how determineers inputs via their labor inputs and inputs via superiors foundation be conductive to leaner effectiveness. Motivation is a process that pretends the purposiveness of behaviour. Factors that hold been shown by life for involve external and internal activators.In this assignment we leave outline important motivation theories and how they ar employ in the workplace. Motivation theories work throughk to 2. MASLOWS HIERACHY OF NEEDS quite a littles’ postulate argon ar gripd according to its magnificence of forgivings survival. mankind involve may be position in a hierarchy where the lowest train contains the intimately basic necessitate, which must be at rest before the laid-backer say requests appear and bring motivators of behaviour. The enquirefully of the hierarchy atomic number 18 as follows, psychological ingests, safety take, social call for, ego/ consider ineluctably and self- actualisation gets.Psychological ask: These be the basic needs for a human which are essential for a human beings biological functioning and survival. Examples would be food, pissing and warmth. Employee s who are adequately paid poop submit for these needs. Safety needs: As soon as the psychological needs are convenient, an differentwise aim of needs emerge and the importance of the previous take of needs disappear. In this take a someone looks for security, stability and a safe environment. Many employees’ most important need is seam security; new(prenominal) security factors include increases in salary and bene lodges.Social needs: Once a person go throughs secure in their surroundings and are in promise of workable threats, social needs are activated. These include the need for love, acceptance, friendship and a vernacular sense of belonging. At this level, employees propensity social consanguinitys inside and outside the organization. Peer crowd acceptance within the workplace is often an important psychological need for employees. Ego/ look upon needs: These needs may be divided into some(prenominal) groups namely, self- respect and self-esteem, the respect and approval of others.Once employees form friendships the need for self-esteem becomes priority. Needs, such(prenominal) as self-confidence, independence, recognition, appreciation and deed all fall under this level. organizational factors such as wrinkle title, status items within the organization, such as parking spaces or office surface and level of indebtedness become important to the employee. Self- actualization: If all the above menti cardinald needs are largely satisfied, lot than spend their date searching for opportunities to implement their skills to the best of their ability.Maslow describes the needs as the desire to become more than and more what one is and to become everything one is capable of becoming. Self-actualization is the uninhibited expression of your true self and your talents. Employees try on challenging and creative jobs to strain self-actualization. This possibleness has many implications for individual performance, the most commo n scheme being motivating hatful in term of helping benefits and job security. The work nation do and the way the work environment is designed, increases interaction amidst employees which helps satisfy social needs.However, disadvantages pertaining to this may result in excessive socialization and may collect a negative effect on the employees work sidetrack (NEL P. S et al,2004). If a person’s work is directly associated with need satisfaction, wherefore that person becomes self-regulating, qualification the component parts of external incentives become little signifi cigarett as motivators. As one level of need is met, a person moves onto the next level of need as a source of motivation. Hence, good deal progress up the hierachy as they successively gratify to each one level if need(Nelson Q, 2011) (http://upload. ikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs. png) 3. HERTZBURGS TWO FACTOR speculation Herzbergs Two Factor surmise is a â€Å" mental object speculation” of motivation” (the other main one is Maslows Hierarchy of Needs). Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked to recall when they had matte supreme or negative at work and the reasons why. From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to under contributeing employee motivation and satisfaction, these were hygiene factors and motivator factors. Hygiene Factors:Hygiene factors are ground on the need to for a patronage to avoid dissatisfaction at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they wad cause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include: * Company policy and administ ration * Wages, salaries and other pecuniary remuneration * Quality of supervision * Quality of inter- individual(prenominal) relations * Working conditions * Feelings of job security inducement Factors: Motivator factors are based on an individuals need for personal matura tion. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction.If they are effective, then they can affect an individual to fulfill above-average performance and safari. Motivator factors include: * Status * chance for advancement * Gaining recognition * Responsibility * Challenging / stimulating work * Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job There is some alikeity surrounded by Herzbergs and Maslows shapes. They both suggest that needs convey to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the steeper levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e. g. elf-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed. Applying Hertzbergs model to de-motivated workers These few modelings indicate de-motivated employees in the workplace: * natural depression productivity * Poor production or service quality * Strikes / industrial disputes / break starts in employee communication and relationships * Complaints virtually pay and whole kit conditions According to Herzberg, management should heighten on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect.He suggested terzetto ways in which this could be through: * Job enlargement: It is a human resource practice utilise to motivate employees in a particular position. A job is magnified horizontally through the addition of new responsibilities and versatile duties. * Job rotation: A system of working in which employees work in a range of jobs in a company so that they befuddle different types of work to do and understand the organization better, it can help employers by keeping employees from acquiring bored and looking for another job. Job enrichment: move employees through expanding job responsibilities and giving increased understand over the total production process. Employees normally receiving genteelness and additional support as well as increased input in procuderes. 4. V ROOMS EXPECTANCY motivating THEORY Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting reason expended to fulfil them, Vrooms anticipation possible action separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and topics.Vrooms foresight theory assumes that fashion results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to understate pain. Vroom realized that an employees performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are conjugate in a persons motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and valency to account for this. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort go forth lead to increased performance i. e. f I work harder then this will be better. This is impact by such things as: 1. Having the rightfulness resources available (e. g. raw materials, time ) 2. Having the right skills to do the job 3. Having the necessary support to get the job done (e. g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job) Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued end point will be received. The ground level to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome. i. e. if I do a good job, in that respect is something in it for me. This is affected by such things as: 1.Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes †e. g. the rules of the reward ‘game 2. Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome 3. Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the posited outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must elect attaining the outcome to not attaining it. For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off.The theory has three key elements or concepts that it uses: 1. Performance-outcome expectancy: This means that the individual belives that every behaviour is machine-accessible to an outcome, and different levels of that behaviour can be connected to different levels of the outcome. 2. Value: With regard to that, the attractiveness of that outcome depends on the individual, for one, the outcome may be a highly values reward whereas for another, it could be perceive as a punishment. 3. Effort-Performance expectancy: Lastly, individuals evealuate the effort-performance expectancy relationship.In essence, the employee asks himself whether he will be able to perform a specific task and translates those perceptions to probabilies of success. He or she then chooses the behaviours that have the highest likelihood of success. Crucially, Vrooms expectancy theory works on perceptions, so regular if an employer recovers they have provided everything reserve for motivation, and even if this works with most people in that organisation, it doesnt mean that someone wont perceive that it doesnt work for them. It could as apply to any situation where someone does something because they expect a certain outcome.For example, one recycles paper because they think its important to conserve resources and take a stand on environmental issues (valence); they think that the more effort they put into recycling the more paper they will recycle (expectancy); and they think that the more paper they recycle then less resources will be used (instrumentality). Thus, Vrooms expectancy theory of motivation is not well-nigh self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes. 5. ADAMS EQUITY THEORYJohn Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, put forward his Equity possibleness on job motivation in 1963. There are similarities with interpretation of previous sim pler theories of Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace psychology, in that the theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect each individuals treasurement and perception of their relationship with their work, and thereby their employer. bingle of the most important issues in motivation is how people suasion their contributions to the organization and what they get from it.Ideally, they will view their relationship with the employer as a well-balanced, inversely in force(p) exchange. As peope work, they realize their consequences of their actions, develop beliefs about outcomes and asses how jolly the organization treats them(Snell A. S. & Batemen T. S 1999, Management: twist Competetive Advantage). The Adams Equity Theory model and then extends beyond the individual self, and incorporates exercise and comparison of other peoples situations †for example colleagues and friends †in forming a comparative view and cognizance of Equity, which commonly manifests as a sense of what is fair.When people feel fairly or advantageously inured they are more likely to be motivated, when they feel unfairly treated they are highly wedded to feelings of disaffection and demotivation. The way that people measure this sense of fairness is at the heart of Equity Theory. Equity, and thereby the motivational situation we might look to assess using the model, is not dependent on the finis to which a person believes reward exceeds effort, nor even necessarily on the belief that reward exceeds effort at all.Rather, Equity, and the sense of fairness which commonly underpins motivation, is dependent on the comparison a person makes between his or here reward/investment ratio with the ratio enjoyed (or suffered) by others considered to be in a similar situation. Equity Theory reminds us that people see themselves and crucially the way they are treated in terms of their surrounding environment, team, system, etc †not in isolation â⠂¬ and so they must be managed and treated accordingly.Some people reduce effort and application and become within disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, recalcitrant or even disruptive. Other people seek to improve the outputs by making claims or demands for more reward, or desire an alternative job. 6. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY A theory of human needs more advanced than Maslow’s theory is Alderfers ERG theory, meaning that Maslows theory has general pertinency whereas Adelfer aims his theory at understanding peoples needs at work.Aldelfers theory builds on some of Maslows thinking but reduces the number of universal needs from tailfin to three and is more flexible in terms of movememy in levels. Like Maslow, Alderfer also believes that needs can be arranged in a heirachy. The ERG theory infers that there are three regulates of needs: * Extintence needs are all material and psychological desires. * Relatedness needs involve relationships with other people and are satis fied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings. Growth needs motivate people to productivity or creatively change themselves or their environment. ERG theory proposes that several needs can be operating at once, whereas Maslow assumes that tear down-level needs must be satisfied begore a higher-level need is a motivator. Alderfer lifts this restiction. Accordning to the ERG theory, a higher-level need can be a motivator even if a lower-level need is not fully satisfied, hence several needs can be operating at once. Maslow would take that self-actualization is important to people only after other sets of needs are satisfied.Aldelfer maintains that people can be motivated to satisfy both existence and growth needs at the same time. Alderfer agrees that as lower level needs are satisfied, a worker becomes motivated to satisfy higher-level needs, but he breaks down with Maslow on the consequences of need-frustration. Maslow says that once a lower-level need is sati sfied, it is no longer a source of motivation, whereas Alderfer suggests that when an individual is motivated to satisfy a higher-level need but has difficultness doing so, the motivation to satisfy lower-level needs becomes higher.To see how this works, lets look at a middle manager in a manufacturing firm whose relatedness needs(lower-lvel needs) are satidfied. The manager is shortly motivated to try and satisfy her growth needs but finds this difficult to do so as she has been in the same position for the past five years. She is extremely skilled and knowlegable about the job and the fact that she has too much work and responsibiliies already leave her no time to pursue anything new or exciting. Essentially, the managers motivation to satisfy her growth needs are being frustrated because of the nature of her job.Alderfer postulates that this frustration will increase the managers motivation to satsfy a lower-levelneed such as relatedness. As a result of this motivation, the mana ger becomes more have-to doe with about interpersonal relations at work and continually seeks honest feedback from her colleagues. Both Maslows and Alderfers theories have practical value in that they remind managers the type of reinforcers or rewards that can be used to motivate people. (http://www. envisionsoftware. com/es_img/Alderfer_ERG_Theory. gif) 7. McCLELLANDS NEEDS THEORY The theory was developed by David McClelland and his associates.It focuses on three needs, achievement, power and affiliation. Achievement is characterized by a satisfying orientation towards accomplishment and an obession with success and goal attainment. It is a drive to excel and to achieve set standards. Challening work motivates them and they take personal responsibility for success or failure. They like to set goals that require stretching themselves a little and have a drive to succeed, they strive for achievement rather than rewards. They esteem to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before.The people with this need look for situations where they can attain peronal responsibility for finding solutions to problems , in which they can get quick feedback of their performance so they can determine whether they are improving or not. This helps them to set their goals. The need for power is a desire to influence or contol other people. This need can be a negetive force which is termed personalizes power, if its expressed through pugnacious minipulation and exploiting others, these people want power only to achieve their own personal goals.However the need for power can also be seen in a positive manner which is called socialized power because it can be be conducted towards the constructive improvement of organizations ans societies. It is basically the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Individuals with a high need of power prefer to be dictated into warring and status- orientated situations and tend to be more concerned with prestige than with effective performance. Affiliation reflects a strong desire to be liked by other people such as your colleagues nd anoyone you may be working with. Individuals who have a high level of this need are more orientated towards getting along with others and may be less concerned with performing at high levels. These types of individuals are usually very social and friendly. The need for affliation is not important for management and leadership success as one would find it difficult to make knotty but necessary decisions which will make some people unhappy. They prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones and desire relationships that involve a high stage of mutual understanding. . McGREGORS THEORY OF X AND Y Douglas McGreggors theory of X and Y is a management based style of theory that tries to expalin different management styles and leadership behaviour within the workplace. McGreggor proposed that the organizations leaders a nd the organization as a whole has different views on the skills and motivation of the employees of the organization. These effectiveness views can be described as Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X With Theory X assumptions, managements role is to coerce and control employees. People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. * People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organisational objectives. * People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition. * People seek security above all else. Theory Y With Theory Y assumptions, managements role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. * Work is as natural as pushover and rest. People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). * Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with t heir achievement. * People learn to accept and seek responsibility. * Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. * People have potential. McGreggor did not see these theories as mutually exclusive and believed that managers could use these theories simultaneously.He compared his theory with Maslow’s where he put Maslows higher needs and Theory X together and lower needs to Theory X. This proposes that people who are seeking higher needs, such as self-actualization, are motivated by a Theory Y leader, whereas people who don’t have work-related needs are motivated by Theory X leadership style. 9. CONCLUSION In conclusion, It is therefore essential for organizations to look for and employ people who â€Å"fit” into the values of the organization and are able to function according to organizational values.Organizations must also have suitable mana gers who have the ability to coach and teach their employees to deliver optimally. Enhanced leadership enables managers to motivate their employees to promote the best possible skills and practices in human resources. interrogation confirms the importance of motivation in leading employees and influencing them to bugger off and energize people so that they â€Å"work towards organizational goals”. Researchers have placed great importance on the responsibility of managers â€Å"to create a proper mode in which employees can develop to their fullest potential”.All these motivational theories have played a pivotal role in helping managers achieve the best results, and also helped undestand how important motivation is. Motivation thoeries give a broader explanation about how people perceive their work and lives, and how they use these insights to motivate themselves and grow, as people as well as in their jobs. 10. LIST OF REFERENCES NELSON, Q. (2011), Principles of O rganizational Behaviour, 7th Edition, military post: South-Western Cengage Learning LUTHANS, F. (1998), Organizational Behaviour, eighth Edition. Place: McGraw-Hill Irwin. GEORGE, J.M and JONES, G. R. (2002), Organizational Behaviour, tertiary Edition, Place:scholar Hall. MULLENS, L. J( 2010),Management and Organizational Behaviour, 9th Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ANTHONY, W. P et al(1999), Human Resource Management: A strategic approach, tertiary Edition, Place: Hartcourt College Publishers. BERGH,Z and THERON,A. (2006). Psychology in the work context, 3rd Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ROBBINS, S. P. (2003). Organizational Behaviour, 10th Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ROSENFELD,R. H and WILSON,D. C(2004). Managing Organizations, 2nd Edition. Place: Oxford.\r\n'