Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Ethical Issues and Planning the Audit Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical Issues and Planning the Audit - Essay Example The audit revealed certain flaws in the internal control. If after the auditor has undertaken alternative procedures to assure himself on the reliability of the report there is no assurance that the financial statement is reliable for use by any user. John the auditor may have discovered the poor internal control procedures of the company on inventories and he believes that the valuation method used in estimating the inventories will compromise the integrity of the report and a potential investor to take a risk beyond what he is willing to take if he knew the true values of the inventories. The use of estimates in the valuation of inventories instead of the cost or market which ever is lower rule is a violation of the generally accepted standard. The deviation from the standard must be disclosed and it is the duty of the auditing firm to show the effect on the inventory and on the overall reliability of the financial condition of the company under audit. Is the inventory material in relation to the overall assets of the firm, or of the current assets Was there a physical count made and was the auditor present during the physical count and such count was used in th computation of the inventory These are all considered in assessing whether the opinion of the auditor is unqualified, or a disclosure is necessary. Despite these once there is deviation from the standard of reporting is presenting the inventory values that materially affect the accuracy of the values reported it is the auditor's duty to report. John should submit his report and the outcome of his meeting with Chandler on the matter of substitution by Chandler to the firm's quality assurance board. The report should clearly state that John's findings and the alternative procedures he did, considering the poor internal and complaints of customers on merchandise defects, etc., have not cured the unreliability of the financial report. The Board will be the final arbiter that will decide whether indeed a disclosure is necessary in the report in the "Notes to financial statements" section, or a qualified opinion. Chandler may have ulterior motives in making an unqualified opinion and scope of work, etc. Question 2: Planning the Audit To: Audit Partner Re: Potential problem areas and their impact on the audit plan for Moss Green Ltd. We have undertaken the initial steps in our audit of the above-mentioned client through interviews of their key management officers who might likely be our sources of vital information and approval on items that will be included in the audited financial reports. The officers are Mr. Tom Green the managing director and Wendy Chong who is in charge of the financial affairs of the client particularly the management of the investments and foreign funds that are hedged to secure foreign currency fluctuations. We are concerned on possible problems in the presentation and disclosures of accounts. We learned from the previous auditor that Tom Gross does not have much interest on the financial affairs and he has delegated these to Wendy Chong. The possible problem with Wendy Chong is her refusal to allow disclosures on certain investments that has implications on valuation and contingent liabilities, particularly on hedged accounts. The concern is much more because Wendy enjoys a incentive compensation scheme which my tempt

Monday, October 28, 2019

High Drop Out from School Among Girls in Tanzania Essay Example for Free

High Drop Out from School Among Girls in Tanzania Essay Education enables girls to make their own decisions and to influence their families positively. Education saves and improves the lives of girls and women. It allows them greater control of their lives and provides them with skills to contribute to their societies. UNICEF (2004) report indicates that girls’ education leads to more equitable development, stronger families, better services, better child health and effective participation in governance. Despite the obvious benefits of Education to national development, research findings indicate that girls’ dropout rate from school is higher than that of boys. It observed that Tanzanian girls, for various reasons bordering on religious, cultural, socio-economic and school related factors, are not given a fair chance in the educational sector. In Tanzania, about 7. 3 million children do not go to school, of which 62% are girls (UNICEF 2004). The same UNICEF report indicates that girls’ primary school completion rate is far behind that of boys, at 76% compared with 85% for boys. This gender gap means that millions more girls than boys are dropping out of school each year. This goes to show that the majority of children not in school are girls. Mohammed (2004) equally reported that a girl may be withdrawn from school if a good marriage prospect arises. Early marriage is a sociocultural factor that hinders the girl child’s access to school. Some parents, in an attempt to protect their teenage daughters, give them out to wealthy old friends. Some of these girls who attempt to escape from such forced marriages end up in disaster. Alika and Egbochuku (2009) found that the socio-economic status of the girls imposes considerable constraints upon their continuing stay in school. In fact, they asserted that a girl’s particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on educational attainment. The Problem Education, which is the right of every child, is a mirage in the lives of some Tanzanian girls because some of them are forced into early marriage as from age 12. Poverty has been known to force most parents to withdraw their children from school UNICEF (2004) report indicates that some 121 million children are out of school for various reasons and 65 million of them are girls. With the educational rights of 65 million girls unmet, something should be done to ensure that they complete their education. The same report indicates that Tanzania is one of the 25 developing countries of the world with low enrolment rates for girls, gender gap of more than 10% in primary education and with more than 1 million girls out of school. This is a problem that requires emergency action if the nation is to advance technologically, considering the multiplier and intergenerational benefits derivable in the education of the girl child. It is the aim of this study, therefore, to find out reasons why girls dropout of school in Tanzania and, consequently, based on the findings proffer counselling strategies that could be adopted in order to check the incidence of drop out from school among girls in Tanzania. Research Question  To guide this investigation, one research question will be formulated 1. What are the reasons for high dropping out of school by girls in Tanzania? The descriptive survey design will be adopted for this study. The study sought to determine the reasons for dropping out from school among girls in Tanzania. The population of the study will comprised all girls who dropped out of school and re-enrolled in schools in Tanzania. Four primary schools, four secondary schools and four skill acquisition centres will be used for the study. A stratified random sampling procedure will be adopted in selecting the secondary schools, on the basis of their status i. e. all girls’ schools and all co-educational schools. For the primary schools, the upper primary classes will be used for the study while for the skill acquisition centres, two government skill acquisition centres, one nongovernmental skill centre and one private skill centre will be used for the study. The research instrument used will be a checklist on reasons for dropping out of school.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

hamlet :: essays research papers

Hamlet Essay   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After reading Hamlet, I have realized that some of Shakespeare’s original play must be abridged for our production. After careful analysis I have decided that of the four soliloquies in the play we should only include two of them. I have discovered that two of these soliloquies are not that important in understanding the meaning of the play.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In order to see which two we should include or omit we have to summarize all four soliloquies. The first one, which begins â€Å"O that this too, too sullied flesh...†, is an emotionally violent speech. Hamlet wishes he were dead, complains that suicide is a sin, and describes the world as useless and disgusting. He then talks about his father, comparing him to Claudius. He calls Claudius a half-man half-beast creature. The second soliloquy, which begins â€Å"O what a rogue and pleasant slave am I...†, Hamlet compares himself to a mythical character named Hecuba and wonders what the latter would do in his situation. He then accuses himself of being a coward who can’t even avenge his father’s dead. He also calls himself an idiot before devising a plan to remedy the situation. â€Å"To be or not to be...† (third soliloquy) is basically a debate on life and whether it is worth living. Hamlet here questions death and says that all men fear death. Hamlet ends here by saying conscience makes cowards of us all for when we think of the consequences of an action we do not take it. And finally the fourth soliloquy which begins â€Å"How all occasions to inform against me...† is an expression of Hamlet’s shame and amazement that others can act when he himself can’t. Hamlet here realizes that he can’t escape from his destiny and has a sense of feeling of what is about to happen to him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After paraphrasing all four soliloquies a decision has to be made as to what to include. The two which should be included are the first and third ones. The first one should be included because it allows the audience to hear Hamlet’s innermost thoughts. This speech sets precedence for the rest of the play. In this speech Hamlet expresses his grievances toward the people he is supposed to love. It is an outpouring of a man in deep distress. It not only puts Hamlet in confusion but the audience which has to decide if Hamlet is crazy or not as the play develops. The third soliloquy should also be included because it is the most famous speech in all of the English language.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Disney Princess Pictures: Chores, Mirrors, and Chameleons Essay

Disney Princess Pictures: Chores, Mirrors, and Chameleons At the start of Walt Disney Pictures’ Tangled, a title card cataloging the feature as Walt Disney Animation Studio’s 50th Animated Motion Picture appeared. The studio’s first animated motion picture, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, premiered to audiences in 1937. Over this 73 year gap and 50-movie timeline, how has the Disney animated motion picture changed, or even so, not changed at all? Both features follow the tale of their respective heroine, Snow White in Snow White, and Rapunzel in Tangled. Snow White as Disney’s first princess is simple. Her high pitched voice allows for a feeling on innocence and naivety. Characterized in her opening song, â€Å"I’m Wishing,† Snow White fetches water out of a well while singing to her reflection. 73 years later, the princess has matured. Rapunzel, while still encompassing the traditional traits of a Disney princess, has some edge. She’s an adventure prone 17 year old who is curious about the world outside of her tower. Compared to Snow White’s â€Å"I’m Wishing†, Rapunzel’s opening song, â€Å"When will my Life Begin,† clearly demonstrates the maturity and complexity that the Disney leading lady now has in a new century. From Snow White to Cinderella to Sleeping Beauty, the early Disney princesses throughout the 1930s to 1950s have all focused heavily on cleaning and completing chores. For example, in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Snow Whites main duty and reason for being able to stay in the seven dwarfs cottage is that she will cook and clean constantly for the little men. In Tangled however, the first lines of the film put this stereotypical Princess cleaning pattern in the trash. Rapunzel begins her song, â€Å"When will m... ... purposes, both films achieve different tones for death and marketability. Available technologies during the time of the creation also influence how the picture looks and is represented, but not necessarily how the story is told. This right balance and blend of accepted traditions and drifts from the princess archetype, utilization of technology, and focuses on audience creates a perfect potion, making the Disney Animated Studios a jugunate in children’s animation for years to come. Works Cited Disney’s Tangled. Disney Enterprises, Inc., 2010. Web. 5 Dec. 2010. . Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Walt Disney Pictures, 1937. Film Tangled. Walt Disney Pictures, 2010. Film. Wojcik-Andrews, Ian. Children’s Films: History, Ideology, Pedagogy, Theory. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc, 2000. Print.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Debtor Appeal of Boston Essay

1. Case name and citation: In re Boston shipyard Corp. , Debtor Appeal of Boston Shipyard Corp. , No. 89-1144 United States court of Appeals, first Circuit. 886 F. 2d 451 Heard June 7, 1989. Decided September 1989 Before CAMPBELL, Chief Judge Reinhardt and Toruella circuit Judges. Its alleged that the ruling in this case was not fair by the fact that the district court that confirmed the bankruptcy of Boston Shipyard Corporation, BSC in favor of the appellee , the US Military Sealift Command, MSC. 2. Key Facts: BSC entered into agreement with MSC to revamp and repair the USNS Mississinewa (a water vessel) at a final pay of $ 4,997,925. Having been not fully aware, it turned out that the contract required much more in expenses than it was originally estimated. On realizing change in the contract specifications; it filed a change authorization order so that the work could be done with the permission of their client MSC. The orders however accumulated at the MSC’s table such that their delayed resolution resulted to a wide financial implication towards BSC. Till August 1985, BSC’s financial condition had worsened a situation that required the contract partner, MSC to make payments. Failure of MSC to pay BSC led to termination of the contract. The pulling out of the contract by BSC Company was based on the fact that the latter company had been declared bankrupt. It’s reported that on October 17th due to failure of MSC to compensate BSC, and was terminated by the government (West’s Federal Reporter, 1990). 3. Legal issues presented before Court: Among the legal issues presented before the court were several factors. That one, BSC as a company pulled out of a contract it had entered into with the US Military Sealift Command, â€Å"MSC†. The second issue was the fact that the latter, (MSC) had declined to make payments to the contractual partner, (Boston Shipyard Corporation, BSC), to cater for the extra expenses that were not budgeted for by the company. The US Military Sealift Command, MSC was â€Å"supposed† to cater for these cost overruns in order for BSC to provide its services. 4. Holding of the court: The US government, on February 25th 1986, through the US Bankruptcy Court, filed a proof of claim of $ 9. 2 million in Reprocurement costs. On the other hand, BSC, objecting to the Proof of Claim, filed a counter Proof of Claim, which was meant to convert the terminated contract into one that could benefit the government. Six months down the line, the bankruptcy court on making first hearing, it passed a judgement that favoured the government on the basis that BSC had without excuse withdrawn from the contract. This was further accepted to at the district court, a decision that BSC appeals to. 5. Reasoning (rationale): That a cardinal change is created or comes to exist in a contract when the contractor finds that he or she is required to execute tasks that are materially different from those that were originally bargained for at the start. Such changes are not subject to rectification, and so the judging on this, the government was in breach (West’s Federal Reporter, 1990). Basing on the fact that this contract was a â€Å"call and inspect† type, which implied that the vessels had to be opened first and scrutinized before establishing the whole cost to be involved in the contract. BSC may not be justified to abandon or pull out of the contract basing on the change orders written to MSC. Delay in the kick off of a contract is expected in any contractual agreement (Magoba Construction Company vs. United States). Talking of the incapability of BSC to deliver its services due to financial incapacity, one may argue that a contractor’s default may be pardoned if the causes seem to be beyond his control (ruling of Southeastern Airways Corporation vs. United States). However, it’s generally understood that as a contractor who makes and accepts bids from the government or any other individual, he should be having enough funds to support the contract. This is subject to change. Justification of the contractors default may be carried out only if the experienced financial problems were caused by factors beyond the company’s control or by the company itself (ruling of the case of National Eastern Corporation vs. United States). BSC also argues that the government’s delay to pay it some amount of money resulted to it being unable to respond to a contract worth $ 6. 5 million. This is not true. Evidence has, right from the beginning that BSC had a thin financial base before the contract was initiated (West’s Federal Reporter, 1990) At the same time, no blame was to be put on MSC for having caused any delay or disruption. Hence, conclusively, BSC’s financial incapacitation deterred the take-off of the contract. A different decision on this would make government contracts quite unworkable, and hence contractors would demand refund, and or financial consideration for any cost overruns. References: West’s Federal Reporter (1990): Cases argued and determined in the United States courts of appeals and Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, University of California, p. 452

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Best Multiplication Table + 9 Tips for Easy Multiplication

The Best Multiplication Table + 9 Tips for Easy Multiplication SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Whether you're planning to take the SAT soon or just want tobrush up on your basic math skills, knowing your times tables and multiples is a vital part of understanding math. Here, we give you free printable multiplication table PDFs and go over the nine rules you should know about multiplication. Multiplication Table 12 x 12 Below is a 12 x 12 multiplication chart showing all multiples of the numbers 0-12. To use this chart, look for the two numbers youwant to multiply together on the top row and in the leftmost column, and then find the box that connects these two numbers together. For example, if you’re trying to find the product of 7 and 5, you'd look for 7 in the leftmost column and 5 in the top row, and then see where these two meet in the middle (35). (You can also look for 7 in the top row and 5 in the left column- as we’ll explain, the order in which you multiply doesn’t actually matter!) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 11 0 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132 12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144 We also offer two free printable PDFs of this 12 x 12 multiplication chart. The first table is in portrait mode,andthe second table is in landscape mode. Click the thumbnail for the version of the multiplication table you’d like to print out: There are many ways you can use this multiplication table to your advantage. If you’re in high school and planning to take the SAT or ACT soon, you can use this chart to help you remember basic multiplication pairs and multiples likely to come up on the SAT or ACT Math sections. Being able to quicklydo mental math on tricky problems involving multiplication can effectively reduce the time you spend attempting to solve the problem. This chart will also teach you to avoid relying too much on your calculator on the SAT/ACT Math sections. We recommend printing out a copy of this multiplication table and either hanging it up by your desk or study areaor placing it in your binder for school so you can refer to it often to help you memorize the most common multiples. Time to turn on your brain! 9 Fundamental Rules for Remembering Multiples As you use the multiplication table above, make sure you know all the basic rules for remembering multiples and how they work. Below, we go over the most common multiplication rules you should have memorized. Rule 1: Order Doesn’t Matter in Multiplication If all you’re doing is multiplying two or more numbers together- and aren’t doing any other math function such as adding, subtracting, or dividing- then the actual order of those numbers doesn’t matter. In other words, 8 x 4 is the same exact problem as 4 x 8 (both equal 32). This rule also works if you’re multiplying more than two numbers together. For example, 2 x 3 x 4 can be written as 2 x 4 x 3, 3 x 4 x 2, etc. Regardless of the order of the numbers being multiplied, this equation will always come out to 24. This means that with the multiplication chart above, you may look for numbers in either the top row or the leftmost column. It doesn’t matter whether you’re connecting the 8 in the top row and the 4 in the left column, or the 8 in the left column and the 4 in the top row. Both ways will give you the same answer of 32. Note, however, that the order doesmatter when you’re doing more than just multiplying numbers together.For example, if you’re multiplying and adding numbers in a problem, you’ll need to follow the order of operations to solve it correctly. Many people use the acronym PEMDAS (parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction) to help them recall the correct order in which they must perform calculations to solve a math problem. An easy way toremember this acronym is with the phrase, "Please excuse my dear Aunt Sally." Rule 2: All Multiples of Even Numbers Are Even No matter which even number you choose- whether it’s as low as 2 or as high as 33,809,236- all multiples of even numbers will always be even as well. Don’t believe me? Just look back at the multiplication table above. If you look at the column under 6, for example, you’ll see that all multiples of 6 are, in fact, even numbers! These multiples include 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, etc. A number is even if the digit in the ones place is even (in other words, if it ends in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8). This rule works because whenever you multiply an even number by another even number or by an odd number, the product will always be even.Here are the formulas that illustrate this: even x even = even even x odd = even Rule 3: All Multiples of Odd Numbers Follow an Even-Odd Pattern Unlike Rule 2, all multiples of odd numbers aren’t, in fact, odd! Rather,multiples of odd numbers will always follow an even-odd pattern. What do I mean by this? Let’s look at an example. Take the odd number 7. Below are the multiples of 7. Each multiple has been highlighted in either yellow (even) or blue (odd): 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 As you can see, the multiples of 7, an odd number, follow a clear pattern of even, odd, even, odd, and so on. This pattern works because of a fundamental rule in math: an odd number multiplied by an even number will always be even, but an odd number multiplied by an odd number will always be odd. Here are the formulas to help you remember this concept: odd x even = even odd x odd = odd Nature has patterns just like math does. Rule 4: The Only Multiple of 0 Is 0 As you likely noticed in the multiplication chart above, any time you multiply 0 by a number- whether that number is 5, 0.0004758, or 6,783,390,391- the product will always equal 0. Basically, since any number times 0 is equal to 0, all multiples of 0 are therefore 0 as well. Rule 5: A Multiple of 1 Always Equals the Number Being Multiplied Whenever a number- no matter how small or big it might be- is multiplied by 1, the answer will be equal to the original number you started with. For example, 9 x 1 = 9.And 12,351 x 1 = 12,351. Here are some multiples of 1 taken from the chart above: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Rule 6: All Multiples of 5 End in 0 or 5 If you look at the multiplication chart above, you’ll notice that all multiples of 5 end in either a 0 or 5. Knowing this makes it easy to remember what numbers are multiples of 5, even if they’re super high. In short, anything that ends in a 5 or 0 is for sure a multiple of 5. Here is a small chart showing some of the multiples of 5: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Rule 7: For Multiples of 10, Just Add a 0 To find a multiple of 10, all you need to do is add a 0 to the end of the number being multiplied by 10. So if you have the problem 10 x 27, you should know right away that the answer is 270 (27 with a 0 added to the end of it). This rule also means that all multiples of 10 end in 0 (this is similar to Rule 6, which states that all multiples of 5 end in either a 5 or 0). In other words, any number you see that ends in a 0, whether it’s 640 or 4,328,120, will be a multiple of 10. Here’s a chart showing some common multiples of 10: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Zerocan be a very useful number in multiplication. Rule 8: Up to 11 x 9, All Multiples of 11 Are Repeated Digits As the multiplication table above shows, all multiples of 11 up to 11 x 9 are equal to the digit being multiplied repeated once. So if you multiply 11 by 6, for example, the answer will be 66 (you just repeat 6- the number being multiplied by 11). Note that this trick only works up to factor 9. Once you hit 10, the product will not equal two repeated digits. Here are the multiples of 11 using the factors 1-9: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 Rule 9: For 12, Multiply by 10 and 2 Then Add Together Multiples of 12 can be difficult to memorize and a little overwhelming, but there’s an easy trick you can use to quickly find any multiple of 12. All you have to do is multiply the factor (the number being multiplied by 12) by 10, multiply that same factor by 2, and then add these together. This might sound complicated, but it’s really not! Written out as an equation (in which a is any factor of 12), this trick would look like this: 12a = 10a+ 2a Let’s walk through an example. Say you want to find the product of 12 x 9. The quickest way to do this would be to first multiply 9 by 10; this gives us 90.Next, multiply 9 by 2 to get 18. Finally, add together 90 and 18. This gives us108, which is the answer to our original problem: 12 x 9. Try this trick with other factors and then double-check your answer with the multiplication chart or a calculator. What’s Next? Want to brush up on other basic math skills? Then check out our expert guides on how to find the mean of a data set and how to use the acceleration formula. Need help preparing for the SAT/ACT Math section?Learn everything you need to know about what kinds of topics are tested on SAT Math and ACT Math.

Monday, October 21, 2019

AP Essay

AP Essay AP Essay Amerika Gillett Per. 3 –AP English 4/1/14 2010 AP* English Language and Composition Free-Response Questions Question 3 A political cartoon is formed by allusion and caricature. They are the primary source that often intriguing and entertaining insights into the public mood, the under lying cultural assumptions of age and attitude towards current events. The content of political cartoons usually includes stereotypical highlights a particular viewpoint or idea using illustrations. The image can be humorous as well as informative, they can also be strategically and even serious. Cartoonists often use humor as a way to express their viewpoints in political cartoons. Society allows humorists to say things that other people cannot or will not say. For example, in one cartoon, which was brought to attention, had an image of President Barack Obama holding an image of him that said â€Å"hope† and a quote that said, â€Å"Maybe I’ll try again†. This image had a negative meaning behind it. The cartoonist was implying that President Obama has done nothing over his last term and he recognizes it. The cartoonist used that specific image to express his opinion on the decision of the President. â€Å" To convey with impunity messages that might be dangerous or impossible to state directly.† Societal contracts allow for political messages in ones humor if one wishes, but there is no imperative for a humorist does not wish to do so. In this day and age, arguing with society, people tent to laugh the most at was off limits for serious discussion. Being a humorist is also being a critic; many of the jokes are aimed at everyday life or group of people. ap essay ap essay The thesis of the American novel A History of the World in 6 Glasses is that certain popular beverages have affected far more than the health of people throughout history, but also their religious ceremonies, economic and political views, and social life. The author of the novel Tom Standage supports the subject that is written about and shows no analysis of disagreement with the thesis. Tom Standage is an author of 3 other novels, which are also historic analyses, which support his data and research provided in this particular novel. A History of the World in 6 Glasses is broken down into six segments, one for each drink, the first of which is beer. Man's first civilizations were established after the reception of cultivating and the training of cereal grains. This change in lifestyle helped the "rise of chairmen, copyists, and skilled workers." Next was wine, assumed a significant part in the prospering Greek and Roman societies. Wine launched inconceivable seaborne exchange, whic h spread their views on philosophy, governmental issues, and writing. The book brings up how these headways began and developed at formal Greek drinking gatherings. A History of the World in 6 Glasses provides various kinds of evidence to support the thesis that Standage created. The evidence provided supports the thesis and develops the theme of significance of the drinks mentioned in the novel. For example, beer was first made in the Fertile Crescent and by 3000 BC was so important to Mesopotamia and Egypt that it was being used to pay wages. In ancient Greece , wine became a main export, serving to spread Greek culture abroad. After the downfall of Rome, spirits such as brandy and rum, shuffling using a process devised by Arab alchemist , fueled the Age of Exploration , fortifying seamen on long voyages and oiling the pernicious slave trade. Coffee also originated in the Arab creation and went on to inspire scientific, financial and political revolutions in Europe during the A ge of Reason, when coffeehouse became the centers of intellect exchange. Finally, though carbonated drinks were invented in 18th-100 Europe they became a 20th-century phenomenon, and Coca-Cola in particular is the leading symbol of globalization. Standage introduces wine-colored through a word of early Hellene and Roman letters society. Wine is initially associated with mixer class as it was exotic and scarce, being expensive to transport without breakage. Wine conveyed power, prestige, and privilege. Wine then came to embody Hellene culture and became more widely available. It was used not only in the Symposium , the Greek drinking Party , but also medicinally to clean wound and as a safer drink than water. Roman farmers combined Greek influence with their own

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Possessives and Apostrophes on SAT Writing 4 Key Tips

Possessives and Apostrophes on SAT Writing 4 Key Tips SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Do you know how to determine if a noun should have an apostrophe? Do you know where to place apostrophes in possessive nouns? Do you know when to use there vs. they're? These are all topics that are tested on the SAT. The SAT Writing section has questions about possessive nouns and pronouns. In this article, I'll provide you with all the rules and strategies to correctly answer these questions. Possessives on the SAT Possessives indicate ownership. Here are some example sentences with the possessives underlined: Sergio’s kindness is amazing. The students’ behavior was unacceptable. Their voices should be heard. Generally, you can expect about 2-4 questions about possessives on the SAT. The questions on possessives will test your knowledge of possessive nouns and possessive pronouns. Possessive Nouns On the SAT, you will be tested on how to correctly form possessive nouns. Thankfully, the basic rules for forming possessive nouns are pretty simple. If a word is singular or if it’s plural but it doesn’t end in â€Å"s,† then you add an apostrophe and then an "s" to the end of the word. The giraffe’s neck is really long. The children’s playground has monkey bars. To create a possessive for a plural word that does end in â€Å"s,† just place the apostrophe after the â€Å"s.† I saw a dance troupe perform last night, and I was impressed with the dancers’ skills. Prayitno/Flickr On the SAT Writing section, the questions on possessive nouns are about determining whether an apostrophe is needed, and if so, whether the possessive is singular or plural. Should a Noun Be Possessive? To determine if a noun should be possessive, take the noun, put an â€Å"of† in front of it, and stick it after the noun or phrase that follows it. Here’s an example: The schools code of conduct is very strict. Here’s how you change the sentence to determine if â€Å"school† should be possessive: The code of conduct of the school is very strict. Does that make sense? Yes. The sentence is referring to the code of conduct belonging to the school; therefore, â€Å"school† should be possessive. This is the corrected sentence: The school’s code of conduct is very strict. Also, plural nouns don’t contain apostrophes. Check out this example: Incorrect: I downloaded 15 song’s yesterday. Correct: I downloaded 15 songs yesterday. Is the sentence describing "yesterday of the song?" No. That doesn't make much sense. The sentence is just using the plural form of the word â€Å"song† because there was more than one song downloaded. Because the noun isn’t being used as a possessive, there shouldn’t be an apostrophe. Should the Possessive Noun Be Plural or Singular? The other factor you’ll have to consider is whether a possessive should be plural or singular. As mentioned above, that can have an impact on where the apostrophe is placed. For example, â€Å"the candidate’s rhetoric† refers to the rhetoric of one candidate, and â€Å"the candidates’ rhetoric† refers to the rhetoric of more than one candidate. Use context clues to determine if the possessive should be singular or plural. Example: Every contestant’s goal was to win the grand prize. Should the possessive be singular or plural? This sentence can be tricky for some students. Are we referring to the goal of one contestant or many contestants. Some may incorrectly assume that the possessive should be plural. However, â€Å"every† implies that we’re talking about the goal of each contestant individually. To remember that â€Å"every† implies singular, think of â€Å"every† as â€Å"every single.† Check out another example: All of the contestants’ buzzers weren’t working. â€Å"All† implies more than one; therefore, we should use a plural possessive and the apostrophe should come after the â€Å"s.† SAT Example The SAT will test you on the issues we just discussed. Use your knowledge of possessive nouns to answer these questions. There are two nouns in this sentence, â€Å"bodies† and â€Å"biological clocks.† Based on the answer choices, we know that we have to determine whether each noun is a plural noun, a singular possessive, or a plural possessive. You should recognize that â€Å"biological clocks† is a plural noun; there is no noun or phrase that follows â€Å"biological clocks† before the comma, and the sentence is not referring to anything of the biological clocks. Therefore, that noun shouldn’t contain an apostrophe. Immediately, we can get rid of B and D. Now we have to determine whether â€Å"bodies† should be a noun or a possessive. Let’s try the replacement method. Is the sentence stating that circadian rhythms are controlled by the "biological clocks of the body?" Yes. The sentence is indicating possession and â€Å"bodies† should be in the possessive form. The correct answer is C. The sentence is referring to the body in general and not multiple bodies, so we use the singular possessive form. Try one more example: From the answer choices, we know we have to determine whether â€Å"waterways† should be a possessive or a plural noun. Again, let's use the replacement method. Is the sentence describing something of the waterways or referring to more than one waterway? It should be a plural noun without an apostrophe because the sentence is stating that acid-whey runoff can pollute waterways. There is nothing indicating possession. Therefore, we can eliminate B and D. Now the question becomes a verb tense question. Because the sentence begins in the present tense with â€Å"is,† the correct answer should also have a verb in the present tense to maintain consistency. The correct answer is A. Possessive Pronouns The SAT will also test you on possessive pronouns. Examples of possessive pronouns include â€Å"my,† â€Å"your,† â€Å"its,† â€Å"his,† â€Å"her,† â€Å"our,† and â€Å"their.† Most of the SAT questions on possessive pronouns will test you on the third person possessive pronouns â€Å"its† and â€Å"their.† There are two types of possessive pronoun questions: word choice and pronoun agreement. Word Choice Homophones These are the most common type of possessive pronoun questions. Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings. Typically, you’ll have to choose whether to use â€Å"there,† â€Å"they’re,† or â€Å"their.† Or you’ll have to choose between â€Å"its† and â€Å"it’s.† Here is a table showing these common homophones and how they're used. there- usually shows location or that something exists they're- contraction for "they are" their- plural possessive pronoun its- singular possessive pronoun it's- contraction for "it is" Check out these example sentences that demonstrate how these words are used: Incorrect: The girls said mean things. There statements were unkind. Correct: The girls said mean things. Their statements were unkind. In this sentence, we can determine that the underlined word should be a possessive pronoun by using the replacement technique. The sentence is saying that the statements of them were unkind. The word â€Å"there† can be used in multiple ways, but to keeps things simple, just remember that â€Å"their† indicates possession and â€Å"there† doesn’t. silverkeys/Flickr Also, keep in mind that the word â€Å"they’re† is a contraction for â€Å"they are.† You can only use â€Å"they’re† if it can be replaced with â€Å"they are.† Incorrect: I love my friends. Their the best. Correct: I love my friends. They’re the best. The underlined word is not indicating possession, but it can be replaced with â€Å"They are.† â€Å"They† is a pronoun that refers to my friends and â€Å"are† is the verb in the sentence. Check out one more example: Incorrect: The puppy was wagging it’s tail. Correct: The puppy was wagging its tail. The word â€Å"it’s† is a contraction of â€Å"it is.† The word â€Å"its† indicates possession. The sentence is referring to the tail of the puppy or the tail of it. To correctly answer these types of questions, use the replacement technique to determine if the underlined word should be a possessive pronoun. Possessive Pronoun Agreement There may also be questions dealing with pronoun agreement. The main rule you have to remember is that a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. Singular pronouns must refer to singular nouns and plural pronouns must refer to plural nouns. Here are some examples: Incorrect: Sheila untied their shoes. Correct: Sheila untied her shoes. Incorrect: The chairs had dust on its legs. Correct: The chairs had dust on their legs. In the first sentence, the pronoun â€Å"their† describes the shoes of Sheila. Because Sheila is one person, we need to use the singular pronoun â€Å"her.† In the second sentence, the underlined pronoun refers to the legs of the chairs. Because â€Å"chairs† is plural, we should use the plural possessive pronoun â€Å"their.† SAT Examples Answer these questions related to possessive pronouns. First, let’s determine if the underlined word should be a contraction or a possessive. Does the word mean â€Å"it is† or is it a possessive? Let's try the replacement technique. Does this sentence work? Scientists have long known that soot particles facilitate melting by darkening snow and ice, limiting the ability of snow and ice to reflect the Sun's rays. Yes. That works. The sentence is referring to the ability of snow and ice to reflect the Sun’s rays; therefore the underlined word is a possessive. So we can get rid of A and C. Now we have to determine if the possessive pronoun should be singular or plural. What has the ability to reflect the Sun's rays? Snow and ice. That's two things, so the pronoun that takes their place needs to be plural. The correct answer is D. Try one more possessive pronoun question. In this question, there are two words in the underlined phrase that could be possessive pronouns. The first is the word â€Å"they’re,† which is a contraction for â€Å"they are.† Should that word remain the same, be the word â€Å"there,† or the possessive pronoun â€Å"their?† The sentence implies that the word is referring to the value of his findings, or â€Å"their value.† Therefore, we can immediately eliminate A and C. Next, let’s look at the underlined pronoun â€Å"their† after â€Å"in.† That word also refers to findings and should be a possessive. Thus, that word should remain the same and the correct answer is B. Review: Strategies for Possessive Questions Here are the most important tips to remember to conquer the SAT Writing questions about possessives. #1: Use the Replacement Technique Once you see a possessive underlined or in the answer choices, make sure you determine whether the word should be a possessive. Remember that â€Å"Justin’s book† is another way of saying â€Å"the book of Justin.† If you saw â€Å"Justins book,† you should recognize that there is an error because the phrase is referring to the book of Justin. If a sentence doesn’t work using the replacement technique, then the underlined word is not a possessive. #2: Singular or Plural? If you determine that one of the underlined words should be a possessive, then you need to decide whether the possessive should be in the singular or plural form. Use the replacement technique, and if the possessive is "of (singular noun)," then you need a singular possessive. If the possessive is "of (plural noun)," use a plural possessive. #3: Focus on Apostrophe Rules For possessive nouns, remember your apostrophe rules. For singular nouns or plural nouns that don’t end in â€Å"s,† just add an apostrophe to the word and then an â€Å"s.† For plural nouns that end in â€Å"s,† just and an apostrophe after the â€Å"s.† #4: Know Your Contractions On possessive questions, you may have to choose between â€Å"it’s† and â€Å"its† or â€Å"their† and â€Å"they’re.† Remember that â€Å"it’s† is a contraction for â€Å"it is† and â€Å"they’re† is a contraction for â€Å"they are.† If you select â€Å"it’s,† the sentence would have to make sense and be grammatically correct if you substituted â€Å"it’s† for â€Å"it is.† Similarly, if you selected â€Å"they’re,† the sentence would have to work if you substituted â€Å"they’re† for â€Å"they are.† What's Next? As you continue your SAT Writing studying, make sure you know the 12 most important grammar rules. Also, pay special attention to punctuation and transitions. Finally, if you're familiar with the old SAT, find out how SAT Writing has changed. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Global Trade Distribution Processes of marks and spencer Essay

The Global Trade Distribution Processes of marks and spencer - Essay Example It has 766 stores in the UK in major shopping centres, airports, railway stations, retail parks and service stations (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). The company has a huge presence in the international market and has stores in Europe, Asia and the Middle East. M&S sells through different channels including in store ordering, telephone, home catalogue and online. Operating Segments The company specialises in various forms of trade. First, the company sells home products, clothing as well as food that are sourced from over 2000 suppliers from different parts of the world. (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013) The entity is also the leading retailer in lingerie, women wear, and its market share has grown rapidly in all other market segments. The company aims to become a multi channel retailer will various sources of revenue ranging from mobile to internet channels in the UK and across the global market. The company also offers financial services through the M&S Bank that was started in 2 012 including loans, travel, cards, insurance, savings and investments (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). Shop Formats The company’s outlets are designed in an attractive way and since they are spacious, the shopping experience is simply amazing. There are core shops that include M&S Food Halls and a collection of the company’s clothing line. ... Finally, M&S Simply Foods supply groceries and home ware (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). Company’s Global Trade Strategy The company came up with a three-year strategy in November 2010 to change the company from a conventional retailer into a global multi- channel retailer. The first phase of the plan was from 2010 to 2013 that focuses on the UK market (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). The second phase focused towards developing the company’s presence in the international market. In November 2010, the company set out to increase its revenue by ?1.5billion to ?2.5billion over the next three years (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). However, due to the decline in the economic environment, the company expects to achieve a decline in revenues (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). Focus on the UK As earlier explained the company’s plan for 2010-2013 focused on business in the UK. This involves enhancing the brand name in its areas of operation. Branding takes centre s tage of all advertising campaigns. Owing to the fact that the market is becoming increasingly competitive, the brand is meant to draw attention to the value and quality offered in their product. The women swear sector has been underperforming as shown in the SWOT analysis discussed later in the paper. The company has come up with new store designs at the end of 2013. With regards to the food section, the company mainly focuses on freshness, convenience and freshness. In 2012, M&S started working on delivering a better shopping experience for their customers through the new store layouts (Brook Intelligence Centre, 2013). The new store designs offer improved navigation and better brand differentiation. The stores have been designed according to local demographics. Multi-Channel The company aims at

Friday, October 18, 2019

Accelerating Change Management at CEB Case Study

Accelerating Change Management at CEB - Case Study Example The successes and failures of the change acceleration process have also been discussed and recommendations of how to improve the process made. CEB is one of the most prominent companies in the world and this is mainly as a result of its providing consultant services to a wide range of among the most successful companies today (Florent-Treacy, Kets de Vries & del Amo, 2010). Its success has been made possible through its ability to cater for the needs of the different corporations that seek its services and this has included a wide range of issues ranging from administration to the provision of advice concerning what to invest in and how to go through the process. A result has been that there has developed a wide variety of teams within the company that have enabled it to provide the services that are necessary to satisfy its clientele. Not only has CEB managed to expand globally, but it has also brought a unique style of management and consultancy into the market that has been sought after by a significant number of companies in the globe. CEB’s success has been attributed to its evolutionary attitude and actions, w hich have made it indispensable in the provision of services to its clients; all of which are based in different countries and environments. That these companies are based in different countries means that CEB has to ensure that it studies the new environments and make them a priority in the development of strategies that its clients can use to attain success. Through its efforts on behalf of its clients, CEB has managed to develop a unique position in the global market where it is able to adapt to different environments and advise its clients accordingly. The ever-evolving attitude that it has developed has made possible its success because this company has undergone many changes since its founding and as a young company, it has

International Finance & Capital Markets Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

International Finance & Capital Markets - Essay Example The company has the desire to acquire China COSCO Holdings Company Limited, which is mainly a logistics and shipping supplier company. The plan for acquisition is evaluated in order to examine whether it will be a success for both the companies. Babcock International had been planning for expansion internationally for the past few years. However, they were targeting the Chinese market in particular. The acquisition plan has been in the negotiation stage and thus there is a need for providing the Board of Directors of Babcock International with recommendations from the financial director regarding the collaboration with COSCO. The cross border acquisition brings a number of issues like the exchange rate risk along with the cross border trade. The plan is evaluated by evaluating the solvency, liquidity and the profitability position of both the companies. The balance sheet of the companies is compared in order to make a decision regarding the collaboration plan. The recent acquisitions of Babcock International are also examined in order to evaluate the strength of the company and get an idea whether it is capable for the acquisition of COSCO. Introduction Babcock International Group PLC is an established company in United Kingdom which is the part of the European Union (EU). The European economy is the world’s largest importer globally in 2011 (16.4%). It is also the largest exporter in the world, exporting 15.4% of all the exports across the globe. Rules and regulations are very strict in EU which possesses restrictions to the companies at different levels of business. Thus it is important for Babcock to obey the rules and regulations of the country and take decision regarding the acquisition China COSCO. The EU also provides investors with a unique market for investment after passing the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) in 2008. Merger and acquisition is viewed as the change agent for any company. The action is taken for expanding or co ntracting the basic operation of the firm which is also known as corporate restructuring. There are different types of acquisition which includes the cross border, local country and home country acquisition. Babcock is panning for cross border acquisition as it is deciding to acquire China COSCO which is leading logistics and shipping Supplier Company in China. The acquisition plan of China COSCO by Babcock will be successful if the following conditions are fulfilled: 1) The creditors and the properties of China COSCO are protected by courts. 2) Babcock has clear knowledge regarding China COSCO. 3) The growth of China COSCO encourages rapid market penetration of China. 4) The entry barriers are considerably high. 5) The cultural difference between UK and China are low. 6) Babcock is relatively larger than size of China COSCO. 7) Babcock has the ability to take the risk of acquisition. 8) Babcock has experience of the local markets of China. 9) Babcock is quite late in entering China market (Clark, 2002) The above conditions are necessary to be fulfilled if the acquisition has to be successful. Babcock has a plan for entering the markets of China for a long time. The proposal of the acquisition is examined by evaluating the financial strengths of both the companies. The benefits of the investors are also concentrated upon. The negotiation

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Baces of Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Baces of Marketing - Essay Example s important in the sense that when structures are formed taking the shape of a pyramid it should not discourage the use of people horizontally across the departments. This is crucial for acquiring effectiveness in accomplishments of several tasks simultaneously. Matching Authority with Responsibility In a management structure, it is crucial to associate responsibility with matching authority because without having freedom for decision making, organizational effectiveness cannot be achieved. This will increase the chance of favorable outcome besides increasing job satisfaction among employees. Task Description and Interaction among People In a dynamic world, processes and technologies keep on evolving necessitating employees to learn new things and undergo suitable changes. Michael Vanbruaene argues that job details need not be briefed with elaborate description – to avoid rigidity among employees and for the purpose of mutual cooperation among staff members. Work Unit Expectat ions All work units within the organization must be clearly briefed with performance goals and objectives. Necessary flexibility to achieving performance objectives should be granted without specifying tasks much in detail. Association with Work Unit All employees must be associated with some department or work group and the department must have a position to guide employees professionally, if needs arise. Supervisor at Work Unit Effective organizational structure demands that each work unit or department is controlled by supervisor or manager because they work as a bridge between and within the work units. Understanding Management Structure Management structure is crucial for the effective functioning of an organization. For a new employee, it is necessary to understand the working... This report approves that marketing thinks about long-run outcomes while sales function is concerned about immediate results. Marketing and sales have been kept under the same structure and that is sure to cripple branding and long-run positioning activities. It is more likely that marketing will become a sales support function and will lose its grip over formulating effective marketing strategies. Structure is incapable to deliver what is required for its long-term survival. In this structure, there is no provision to avert systemic risk. It is not clear how customer needs will be met with – without which it is impossible for the company to grow and expand. Structure implies that CEO will continue to perform day-to-day activities without having any time for a long term planning and execution. The structure cannot provide needed direction for the long-term growth and support to new verticals. Often strategy changes due to change in external environment; however, management fai ls to make a suitable change in management structure. That means a new strategy is implemented within the same management structure. Any change in structure seems unnecessary due to existing expectations, interpersonal relationships, roles, and current functions. It is a fact that people do not accept change if there is a possibility of loss of authority and power. This essay makes a conclusion that effective management structure is certainly an important necessity for success of any modern enterprise. Further, whenever there is any change in organizational strategy, management structure needs to be redesigned so that day-to-day operational efficiency and long-term effectiveness of the organization are not compromised. Moreover, management structure should strike a balance between decentralize autonomy and centralize control for establishing efficiency and effectiveness both in the organization.

Object Oriented Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Object Oriented Technology - Essay Example This process might initially seem to involve unnecessary transitioning, as the applications can be easily integrated using a middleware application which requests/respond to queries to and from individual applications running in same/different platforms. Further, the resources (both manpower as well as system) involved in such transitions are much higher compared to developing a middleware application. However the advantages of using object oriented paradigm overwhelms these drawbacks with its enormous optimistic features and functionalities. The amount of effort involved in system transitions though high, is only a one time process. Once the existing models are transformed to object oriented models, the maintenance of the system become much easier and the resources involved for further enhancements would be reduced to a very great extent. Thus the end product of above process using Object Oriented approach would be a most reliable software application which runs on low production/ma intenance cost. 2. ... In object oriented approach, each of these entities are treated as objects as shown in below figure (fig 1). The objects communicate with each other by sending and receiving messages to perform the required task. Fig 1: Object oriented approach in banking application The structure of the entity in terms of all the functions (methods) and the data (inputs and outputs) involved for an object are defined in separate modules called Class. For example, in the above diagram, the data involved for the customer object would be customer id, customer name, customer address, customer contact number, customer email, etc. The functions involved would be to add customer data, get customer data, update customer data, etc. The bundle of all these data in the form of variables/data fields and all these functions in terms of methods are defined as a template/structure in a module (a piece of code stored separately) called Class (name it CUSTOMER). Similarly, the data fields involved for the account ob ject would be customer id, account number, PIN number, user id, password, account balance, interest etc and functions would be add account, verify account, get account info, get balance, set balance, etc. The data structure for this is stored in another class named ACCOUNT. The same procedure is followed for all the objects that are involved in the requirement. Thus the above figure is updated with the data fields and methods for each class as shown below (fig 2). This diagram/graphical representation of class in terms of data fields and methods is called Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagram. Though there are many data/methods involved in real scenario for each object, only few are shown in figure as example. Fig 2: UML diagram showing class definition for each Object Thus, in the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Baces of Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Baces of Marketing - Essay Example s important in the sense that when structures are formed taking the shape of a pyramid it should not discourage the use of people horizontally across the departments. This is crucial for acquiring effectiveness in accomplishments of several tasks simultaneously. Matching Authority with Responsibility In a management structure, it is crucial to associate responsibility with matching authority because without having freedom for decision making, organizational effectiveness cannot be achieved. This will increase the chance of favorable outcome besides increasing job satisfaction among employees. Task Description and Interaction among People In a dynamic world, processes and technologies keep on evolving necessitating employees to learn new things and undergo suitable changes. Michael Vanbruaene argues that job details need not be briefed with elaborate description – to avoid rigidity among employees and for the purpose of mutual cooperation among staff members. Work Unit Expectat ions All work units within the organization must be clearly briefed with performance goals and objectives. Necessary flexibility to achieving performance objectives should be granted without specifying tasks much in detail. Association with Work Unit All employees must be associated with some department or work group and the department must have a position to guide employees professionally, if needs arise. Supervisor at Work Unit Effective organizational structure demands that each work unit or department is controlled by supervisor or manager because they work as a bridge between and within the work units. Understanding Management Structure Management structure is crucial for the effective functioning of an organization. For a new employee, it is necessary to understand the working... This report approves that marketing thinks about long-run outcomes while sales function is concerned about immediate results. Marketing and sales have been kept under the same structure and that is sure to cripple branding and long-run positioning activities. It is more likely that marketing will become a sales support function and will lose its grip over formulating effective marketing strategies. Structure is incapable to deliver what is required for its long-term survival. In this structure, there is no provision to avert systemic risk. It is not clear how customer needs will be met with – without which it is impossible for the company to grow and expand. Structure implies that CEO will continue to perform day-to-day activities without having any time for a long term planning and execution. The structure cannot provide needed direction for the long-term growth and support to new verticals. Often strategy changes due to change in external environment; however, management fai ls to make a suitable change in management structure. That means a new strategy is implemented within the same management structure. Any change in structure seems unnecessary due to existing expectations, interpersonal relationships, roles, and current functions. It is a fact that people do not accept change if there is a possibility of loss of authority and power. This essay makes a conclusion that effective management structure is certainly an important necessity for success of any modern enterprise. Further, whenever there is any change in organizational strategy, management structure needs to be redesigned so that day-to-day operational efficiency and long-term effectiveness of the organization are not compromised. Moreover, management structure should strike a balance between decentralize autonomy and centralize control for establishing efficiency and effectiveness both in the organization.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Grandmother and Ruby Turpin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Grandmother and Ruby Turpin - Essay Example The bitter epiphany that the Grandmother and Ruby Turpin have experienced in these stories reflects the journey of every human being toward coming to terms with himself. Moreover, in the stories, the Grandmother and Ruby Turpin share a number of similarities and differences in terms of character, experience and various other aspects.The Grandmother and Ruby Turpin share a number of similarities in terms of character and other aspects. First of all, they are both bigots. The Grandmother, in fact, is a â€Å"hypocritical old soul† (Bandy 109). As the oldest character in the story, she seems to show to Bailey, his wife and the children that she possesses the greatest wisdom and the deepest connection with Jesus Christ. However, the irony is that she is the most afraid among the characters when the Misfit shows up. While the rest of the family are curious about the Misfit and his friends, the grandmother is the first one who â€Å"shrieked [and] scrambled to her feet [and called out] â€Å"You’re the Misfit!† (O’Connor, â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find† 306). This particular line simply shows how fearful she is of what can possibly happen to her and the rest of the family.The Grandmother’s hypocrisy in her faith in Jesus Christ also shows when, even as she calls out Jesus’ name, she offers the Misfit a bribe. ... You’re one of my own children† (309). Nevertheless, this last attempt of the Grandmother at survival turns out to be the exact opposite of what she actually wants. Perhaps she thinks that by mentioning God, the Misfit will not kill her, but she is wrong. Ruby Turpin, just like the Grandmother, is simply â€Å"bigoted and complacent† (Paquet-Deyris 1). She keeps mentioning to everyone in the room, or at least make them feel, that she has â€Å"a little of everything† – land, property, slaves, hogs – thus implying that she is better than them (O’Connor, â€Å"Revelation† 89). The phrase â€Å"a little of everything† seems like a humble way of saying â€Å"I have a lot† but it is the latter meaning that she wants to make everyone feel. Moreover, like the Grandmother, Ruby also has this seemingly religious image which she flamboyantly projects upon everyone she sees. However, unlike the Grandmother who uses Jesusâ€℠¢ name as a sort of attempt at survival, Ruby seems to invoke the holy name out of pride. Toward the middle of the story, she mentions, â€Å"I thank the Lord he has blessed me with a good [disposition]† (91), and â€Å"Oh thank you, Jesus, Jesus, thank you† (92). This last line, however, has cost her a lot as we all know. Perhaps Ruby thinks that everyone is impressed with her just because she tells everyone how close she is to Jesus. Little does she know that Mary Grace is not the least impressed. Mary Grace knows that beneath the cloak of this â€Å"respectable, hardworking, church-going† follower of Jesus Christ lurks an evil that looks down on everyone (94). And indeed Mary Grace is right about Ruby Turpin – the latter is full of prejudices against people in general. In fact, Ruby has indeed proudly ranked herself as a

The novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay Example for Free

The novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay The novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding is a political satire on society. The butt of the satire is civilization at the time of the second world war. During this era, a civilized society goes to war and obliterates, maims, and kills. In this novel, Golding depicts destruction, killing, and fear as evil in the heart of man, and uses irony to elaborate on this theme. The novel begins with a plane crashing on an uninhabited island. We are not told the reason for this, but we can assume the crash was a result of events associated with World War II. The survivors of the crash are a group of boys who we know little about prior to the crash. The group of boys then attempt to create a functional society by using a system of rules and a chief. The story then revolves around the breakdown of the boys society. Piggy and Ralph meet up with each other after escaping from their shot-down plane. A large scar was made by the crashing plane in the untouched jungle, symbolizing the first of mans destruction on the island. A war is going on in the outside world, and now for the rest of the book, everyone on the island will be isolated from the real world and put into their own world. Throughout the book we are told of the scar, and it is clear to understand that the scar symbolises mans destruction and destructive forces The island is ultimately a natural environment untamed by man that holds the resources for the boys survival parallel to other life on the island. Golding tries to convey the island like a cage confining the boys and isolating them from the rest of the world. We are told in the story that no boy could reach even the reef over the stretch of water. This shows us that the reef is like a boundary that cannot be crossed by any inhabitant on the island. A major factor stopping the boys getting even close to the reef is between the beach and the reef: the snapped sharks waited. This information helps us comprehend there is no way out. Another device Golding uses to emphasise the boys isolation is metaphors the miraculous throbbing stars. The stars help us understand the boys isolation as they are surrounded by mystery and speculation but their reality can never be found because they are so far away and out of reach. We are told the boys response to this situation is that they were gradually made accustomed to these mysteries and ignored them. Even though the mysteries are ignored, this does not mean that they do not exist or does it? : Sometimes land loomed where there was no land. This shows us that however tangible some of the mirages may seem, they are not necessarily real. The island is not an obvious character or type of life but it demonstrates human qualities and characteristics through its description. The way Golding brings the island to life is mainly through personification and metaphors: The great rock loitered. The wind roared. A thunderous plume leapt half way up the mount. Sending at last an arm of surf up. This language help us visualize the island as a character more powerful than any life on the island, but it has different capabilities and communicates as a force opposed to a physical presence. Near the beginning of Lord of the Flies we can see the island as a paradise: The water was warmer than blood and the temperature even though a little hot is generally comfortable. Which shows us how generally the boys were happy on the island. This gives us an optimistic view towards the book: the air was bright. Later on the mood changes to a darker more cynical mood, which warns us of trouble to come. The sun transforms from a warm presence to an angry eye. This device Golding uses warns us in chapter nine that tension is rising between Jack and Ralph: Revolving masses of gas piled up the static until the air was ready to explode. Throughout Lord of the Flies Golding uses surrounding conditions to reflect the mood on the island. This device helps the island become integrated into the story as a character. The boys in the difficult situation they are presented with have different reactions to their surroundings. Their first experiences with the island prove to show a foreign unfriendly environment: All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. The metaphor bath of heat shows the area around the boys is humid and the destruction may be a message about how humans are in the centre of our planets destruction. This situation because it is so extreme brings out the boys characters immediately and shows their ability to cope with the situation. Ralphs first reactions are casual as he pays little attention to his surroundings, which may indicate he may not understand what is happening at this stage. He could also feel the island poses little threat to him and is in a safe environment. Piggy, however, seems to understand how serious his situation is and feels unsafe on the island we can see this from his attempts to start a conversation with Ralph and he makes suggestions to deal with the situation. I suppose well want to know all their names. At the end of Lord of the Flies the island is burning down and Ralph is being hunted down. The fact that the island is burning down could be suggesting the only thing we are going to achieve is the destruction of the planet if we keep on fighting and developing weapons of greater power. The boys near the end of the book describe the surrounding events as a game. This could be telling us that wars and destruction in modern society are just considered a game but really they are destroying our lives and people are dying. So when the boys were taken off the island the question arises were they really rescued, or just moved to the real world to aid the destruction of our planet. The irony of the final chapter can be viewed either way about if the boys were really rescued.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Charge of Assault Occasioning Actual Bodily Harm (ABH)

Charge of Assault Occasioning Actual Bodily Harm (ABH) This case requires us to consider whether Harry should be charged with assault occasioning actual bodily harm (ABH) in view of the guidance contained within the Code for Crown Prosecutors.  Ã‚   The Code lays down the principles which the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) apply when deciding whether to prosecute and any decision is taken in accordance with the Full Code Test (FCT) detailed in section 4. The first stage of the FCT is the Evidential Stage.   The CPS must be satisfied that there is sufficient evidence to provide a realistic prospect of conviction and will consider the admissibility and reliability of the evidence.   Here consideration is given to whether the evidence has been obtained in breach of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984, whether it may be excluded under sections 76 and/or 78 and whether it is admissible under Part 11 of Criminal Justice Act 2003.   There is nothing to suggest the evidence is inadmissible under these provisions. Next the reliability, credibility and weight of the evidence must be considered.   Harrys evidence does not give rise to any significant concerns in relation to reliability and/or credibility. He has no previous convictions, is generally well liked and has been provided a good reference by his tutor. Furthermore, the nightclub is described as crowded and while it is unclear whether this description relates to the nightclub in general or at the time of the incident, it lends credibility to Harrys assertion Rob was accidently jostled. Robs evidence is supported by three witness statements which suggests his evidence is also reliable and credible.   However, it would be prudent to consider the relationships between Harry, Chloe and Rob and the role, if any, these may have played in his reporting of the incident. In terms of Chloes evidence, it is not clear how far away from the incident she was or how she came to have an unobstructed view while another witness had his view obscured by other nightclub users. Additionally, while her identification evidence is given increased weight because Harry and Rob are known to her, it is possible her relationship with both men provides a motive for misrepresenting the incident, raising doubts as to the reliability of her evidence. Anitas identification evidence is problematic as her eyesight is poor and she was not wearing her glasses on the evening when the incident took place; raising serious concern about the reliability of her identification evidence. However, these concerns may be mitigated depending on how close she was to the incident, whether she knew Harry and Rob and if she was wearing contact lenses. Devs statement does not give rise to any significant concerns about reliability or credibility. However, it is unclear how Dev could positively identify both men and his statement may suggest the nightclub was crowded giving credence to Harrys assertion that Rob was accidently jostled. Considering the evidence collectively, the Evidential Stage does not appear to be met as it gives rise to reasonable doubt which lessens the prospect of conviction.   Harrys is likely to be considered a reliable witness and his explanation of the incident is plausible.   The witness statements are not sufficiently robust and while witnesses claim to have seen Harry push Rob they have not provide a clear link between Harry pushing Rob and Rob falling and injuring his hand.   Furthermore, it is not clear from the evidence whether the incident and/or witnesses perceptions were affected by their relationship to one another, lighting and/or the consumption of alcohol. The CPS can only move onto the Public Interest Stage of the FCT if the Evidential Stage is satisfied.   Despite the Evidential Stage not having been satisfied the Public Interest Stage will be applied and the importance of each factor contained within section 4.12 of the Code will be considered. ABH is a serious criminal offence. From the evidence, it appears the assault was neither premeditated nor sustained.   No weapon was used and there is no evidence to suggest the suspect intended to cause injury.  Ã‚   Furthermore, Harry has no prior convictions and is of previous good character; therefore, further offending is unlikely.  Ã‚   While the offence is considered serious these factors mitigate his culpability and weigh against prosecution. It does not appear that a position of trust or authority exists between Harry and Rob.   Neither does it appear the attack was discriminatory in nature.   However, it is not clear whether Rob is vulnerable and/or a public servant and does not provide an insight into the impact the assault and/or injuries had on him. In terms of harm caused, the definition of harm is quite wide but in the context of the offence can include injuries which are not especially serious such as minor cuts and scratches. Therefore, Rob suffered injuries which are serious in the context of the offence.   While the harm caused weighs in favour of prosecution it is difficult to consider whether this is appropriate under section s4.12(c) because the circumstance of Rob are unknown. Harry is a university student; therefore, it is reasonable to conclude he is over the age of eighteen.   His age is unlikely to be weighed against prosecution under section s4.12(d). In the absence of a Community Impact Statement it is difficult to assess the effect on the community under s4.12(e).  Ã‚   The assault was not violent or sustained and the suspect is unlikely to re-offend therefore the long-term effect can be assessed as minimal and prosecution may be perceived by the community as excessive.  Ã‚   Conversely, a decision not to prosecute may undermine the confidence of the community and victim in the criminal justice system. The maximum sentence for ABH is five years although in this case it is unlikely Harry will receive a prison sentence and a nominal penalty is expected to be imposed.   Furthermore, conviction may have serious implications for Harry depending on his area of study. Therefore, prosecution may be considered excessive under s4.12(f) given the cost of proceeding to court, the nominal penalty likely to be imposed, and the disproportionate long term effect on Harry. Had the case passed the Evidential Stage and proceeded to the Public Interest Stage more information should be sought on the circumstances of Rob and impact the offending had on the community.   On the face of it however, prosecution does not appear to be in the publics best interest. Applying the Code to the facts of this case the Evidential Stage is not sufficiently satisfied and Harry should not be charged with ABH. In his articles Stop and Search and Police Legitimacy: Part 1 and Stop and Search and Police Legitimacy: Part 2 Neil Parpworth makes a compelling argument for the inclusion of elements of the voluntary Best Use of Stop and Search (BUSS) scheme into statute.   Parpworth considers that while the BUSS scheme promised greater transparency, community involvement and improved stop and search outcomes, delivered by intelligence led approaches and increased monitoring, the report PEEL: Police legitimacy 2015 published by Her Majestys Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC) reveals that forces around the country are failing to comply with the scheme.   Parpworth reasons that membership of the voluntary scheme has not driven the desired change and the lack of compliance highlights the need for primary legislation. While intelligence led stop and search is an important police tool, Parpworth argues that the PEEL report reveals a concerning lack of commitment from Chief Constables in terms of ensuring the BUSS scheme is implemented effectively and search powers used legitimately.   Chief Constables play a pivotal role in terms of the internal scrutiny of stop and search yet their leadership in this area was found to be inconsistent.   While some forces had made efforts to ensure the scheme was communicated effectively and its importance recognised, others had made little attempt to communicate the scheme and promote its value.   Parpworth asserts this reluctance to advocate and communicate the importance of the scheme ultimately devalues it, reducing its prospects of success.   This he claims is demonstrated by the perception among officers that the stop and search function operates effectively without the need for additional canons and greater scrutiny. Under section 3 of the PACE 1984 officers are required to record each time they use their stop and search powers; this record should include grounds for the stop and search and show that those grounds were reasonable.   This provision, as Parpworth explains, is reinforced by the BUSS scheme which requires forces record outcomes and publish data about the connection between each search and outcome.   Parpworth argues that while these provisions aim to establish how frequently reasonable grounds were proven to be accurate, PEEL highlights that reasonable suspicion is frequently absent in many instances.   He suggests this indicates the concept of reasonable suspicion is interpreted widely by police officers in practice and that there are marked differences in interpretation between forces.   Moreover, Parpworth expresses concern over searches which were made on the basis that the police officer smelled cannabis. Parpworth suggests that while this is sufficient grounds to justif y a search it is subjective and may provide a convenient way of meeting the statutory requirement for reasonable suspicion, possibly lending itself to an abuse of the stop and search power.  Ã‚   Parpworth also expresses concern that in cases where reasonable suspicion was found to be absent supervisors had endorsed the records of their subordinates.   He suggests this indicates either a lack of understanding at senior level as to what constitutes reasonable suspicion or a failure to exercise due diligence.   Despite the BUSS requirement that the link between stop and outcome be recorded Parpworth interprets the lack of reasonable suspicion as evidence police forces are not monitoring the use of their powers effectively. Equally, while the BUSS scheme aimed to improve the stop to arrest ratio, Parpworth explains that the rates remain relatively low.   Despite HMIC holding the view arrest rates are a misleading measure of success Parpworth explains HMIC do acknowledge the low stop to arrest ratio suggests the power is being used ineffectively. While Parpworth acknowledges that since the scheme has been in place the disproportionate impact on black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups has decreased.   He goes on to explain that the PEEL report suggests some forces continue to exercise their powers of stop and search on stereotypical assumptions rather than intelligence or reasonable suspicion.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Parpworth explains that one of the principle reasons for the scheme is to encourage better relationships between the police and the racially diverse communities they serve.   Nevertheless, some police forces could not explain the reason why particular BAME groups had been stopped more often than others despite the provisions within the BUSS scheme.  Ã‚   Parpworth argues that this disproportionality damages the relationship between the police and community and undermines the legitimacy of the police.  Ã‚   Parpworth questions how, if forces are failing to monitor the impact of stop and search on BAME groups, po lice-community relations can improve. Parpworth concludes that despite all forces voluntarily signing up to the scheme when it was launched by the Government in 2014 only eleven forces were found to be fully compliant when assessed in 2015.   Furthermore, thirteen forces were found to be non-compliant with three or more of the five aspects of the scheme and were immediately suspended.   Parpworth suggests the scheme has failed to achieve its intended purpose and that converting elements of the voluntary scheme into statute will compel forces to observe key features of the scheme which should lead to better use of the stop and search power. The IRAC method helped me structure my answer by providing me with a comprehensive analysis framework.   I began by reviewing the facts so I could identify the issue e.g. whether the Evidential Stage had been met.   Then I considered what legal rules applied to the issues I had identified e.g. PACE 1984 and the Code of Crown Prosecutors.   Next I took the legal rules and applied them to the issues I had identified focusing on the facts relevant to the questions to reach the conclusion that the Evidential Stage had not been met.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Bad Choices Essay -- essays research papers

Bad Choices Choices, everyone goes through them sometimes you make good ones and sometimes you make bad ones. In my case I’ve mad a lot of bad choices in my Junior year of High School. I’ve learned the hard way about making bad choices, lying, and being disrespectful to my family. In some ways I think learning the hard way was good for me, otherwise I might not have learned at all. After being in trouble and experiencing the worst of my past high school years, I have new motivation to get everything straight with my life. August 28th was the first day I decided to stay home from school and the start of my long and dreadful skipping school experience. I had no logical reason for not going to school, I just didn’t care at the time and needed a reality check. After the first couple days of not going to school it became a â€Å"I don’t care† and â€Å"One more day wont hurt† mentality. I was ditching 2 to 3 days a week in the beginning of the third week of school. On October the first I skipped school once again and surprisingly my mom showed up unexpectedly at home and got a notice from the school about my excessive absences at school. My mom was outraged and disappointed. When I got home, choked up embarrassed and feeling so stupid, I had to look into my moms eyes and tell her that I hadn’t been going to school and that I had lied to her about my grades and absences. I didn’t have a explanation for my mom or a excuse I told her straight out that I had no reason to and that she didn’...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Essay example --

Post Impressionism Essays 1. Post impressionism is a term that is used to describe a group of late-19th century and early-20th century artists whose work helped art transition into a new era. These artist defied the naturalism of the Impressionist to explore color, line, and form. This rebellion led to the development of Expressionism. Generally, the approaches were so varied that it is difficult just to focus on one artist and their technique. One of the most prominent Post-Impressionist artists was Vincent Van Gogh. His work is best known for its rough ascetic and bold colors. Van Gogh favored fauvism, which was a movement that implemented vivid expressionistic and non-naturalistic color. Van Gogh’s color was typically saturated and arbitrary. Most of Van Gogh’s paintings show gestural brushwork and examples include: Starry Night and Wheatfield with Cypresses. Also, he often experimented with different perspectives. Another influential post-impressionist artists was George Seurat. Seurat’s main emphasises were surrealism and expressionism. Seurat used Renaissance techniques and styles, creating a hybrid approach to Post-Impressionism. This scientific, more disciplined approach is called Pointillism or Neo-Impressionism. Pointillism is characterized by applying many small dots of pure color so that they become blended to the viewer’s eye. The aim of pointillism is to produce a greater degree of luminosity and brilliance of color. With his new techniques, Seurat generally painted the middle class during their leisure time and his subjects include circus, parks, and harbors. Paul Gauguin was a leading French post impressionist artist whose focus was his imagination. He worked in a studio and experimented with color. His wo... ...rit of the dead, watches over her. Gauguin, in this painting, created a supernatural and fearful aura in this painting. Gauguin experimented with color to arouse deep emotion. Besides the upsetting color, the general composition of the painting is disturbing. The old woman in the background that is watching the girl is eerie. A painting that inspired The Spirit of the Walking Dead was Olympia by Manet. With the completion of Olympia, Manet had set a new precedent for the modern female nude. Also, Manet rejected the standards and challenged people’s morality with his painting. Gauguin's painting challenged society by its form. The most shocking thing about the woman depicted is her age. When this was painted, she was fourteen. Also, the body is disproportionate. An example of this is how her hands are larger than her feet and how her body is awkwardly positioned.

Professional Workforce: The Brilliant Movers Essay

In â€Å"The Coming of the New Organization† Peter F. Drucker (1998), the article confers about the necessitation to revolutionize the command-and-control organization to information-based business society. Indeed, a very intelligent proposal of considering the impact of computer technology on capital investment decision, making it a masterpiece to oblige such organization to be composed of highly educated workforce. One of the circumstances cited by the author set-up to have a more meaningful to wit: In an orchestra, there are probably few orchestra conductors who could coax even one note out of French Horn, let alone show the horn player how to do it. But the conductor can focus on the horn player’s skills and knowledge on the musicians’ joint performance. (p. 1-19) Mainstream Professional Development Mainstream professional development shall be best described by a technological technique that is clearly a natural offshoot among people immersed in today’s wired culture. The clamor for major reforms in the business system given the long standing perception of inferior-superior scheme is deficient, there needs to be a complete transformation of mission-vision by having a naturally concrete, workable and cost-effective plans and measures to enhance faculty performance by encompassing primarily knowledgeable and well experienced professionals. Compromising Camaraderie for Excellence A workforce of highly educated professionals can be cited for uncompromising integrity and professional excellence as a team of power. Without a doubt, successes are made by powerful individuals, first-rate decision makers but best of all brilliant movers. But having a pool of this bright squad may somehow formulate some variance on camaraderie and might have a profound impact on their personal and professional development. And there’s nothing more recommended way to deal with that but through a succession of group activity that may elevate the feeling of union and good ambience in the workplace. One major thing to take into consideration is hearing them all talk, nevertheless that matter would be more interesting to achieve since they all are above average. Workforce Uniqueness Everybody is unique and so their way of thinking, but finding a common ground for people to compromise is uncomplicated and so a straight mission and vision for a company is inevitable. It is the standard within workers that illustrates an intrinsic value as a dynamic pedagogical tool in a conventional business management program. Methodological Approaches Various methodological approaches, with emphasis on performance and the value of continuous learning help the group a lot to lead a common acuity. A viable framework of course design in this field of discipline, adopts on a hands-on approach to gain new competencies, improve existing techniques and share them with colleagues directing a new institutional structures and strategies.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

One Proposed Maxim as a Universal Law Essay

1. State your proposed act as a maxim: â€Å"I will take ZAR 620 000 000.00 (A) when I’ve done a year’s work (C) in order to get really, really rich (E).† 2. Restate this maxim as a universal law; â€Å"All people (7 billion of them) will take ZAR 620 000 000.00 when they’ve done a year’s work in order to get really, really rich.† 3.Ask whether your maxim is conceivable in a world ruled by the universal law; In a real world if individuals earned 620million for a years worth of work there are bound to be huge increases of income and spending going around the markets. A downfall of the economy will occur due to business halt in the competing of prices. People will be greedy and will want everything that money could possibly buy which will result in shortages of products and services. Market demand and supply will cease to exist. In conclusion, this maxim is not conceivable in the real world ruled by universal law. 4. Ask whether you would rationally act on your maxim in such a world. IF I had to earn 620million one years worth of work, I would honestly be over indulging and over spending money on unnecessary material items and food. Eventually I would be following an unhealthy lifestyle resulting in many health related problems like stress, obesity and so forth. Of course I would be really rich! But what would my purpose be thereafter? I therefore would never act rationally in such a world. Step 2: Form an opinion On the basis of your analysis, answer the following questions: †¢What would Kant probably have said about Whitey Bassons (or you) earning ZAR 620,000,000.00? (You might want to do a bit of research into the nature of Whitey Basson’s 2010 earnings). According to Kants theory this would be categorized as morally binding. A talented guy like bassoon is terribly rare. I think that this earnings would be seen as an imperfect duty, because this depends on the preference of humankind. Whitey Basson cultivated his own talent by investing his good education and remarkable people skills into building the business and making it the most successful one today. Kant would therefore accept the earnings for whitey has not stolen from anyone or broken any rules. He reaped the rewards of his benefits. †¢What do you think about Whitey Basson (or you) earning ZAR 620,000,000.00? However, It is unfair to look at them as one year’s income, as those were earned over 40 years. So he deserved to be paid a huge amount for his enormous talent and knowledge in  growing the business into a successful one. They make 50m-60m sales a month in seven jurisdictions. It is fair to be rewarded for such hard work and dedication but not in such large percentage increases especially when the state of the economy is not as rapid as the percentage increase in income. †¢Why do you think this? These figures make no sense of the argument that companies need to pay such vast amounts in order to retain top skills, because more than 20 of the top 100 highest paid executives in 2010 are no longer in their positions today. According to a source â€Å"Figures proved that South Africa was a rich country, but the distribution of that wealth left just 20 people owning R112.2 billion, while 48 percent of South Africans were living below the poverty level of R322 a month. Sixteen percent of employed workers earned less than R500, 33.4 percent earned less than R1 000 and 60 percent earned less than R2 500 a month†