Thursday, February 28, 2019

An Evaluation of Immanuel Kant’s “The Enlightenment”

In the essay What is indicateableness, Im mankinduel Kant (1784) cited his views on enlightenment and how it affects the general public. He wroteEnlightenment is mans emergence from his voluntary immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to engagement ones understanding with step forward focussing from a nonher. This immaturity is self-imposed when its ca occasion lies not in lack of understanding, moreover in lack of resolve and courage to mathematical function it without guidance from an other.Kant assert that it is only after an individual liberates himself from guidance of others that he will be able to use the freedom he wants to exercise. In carrying out his duty, for example, man can argue but he cannot revolt as it virtually definitely will result to failure.Public and Private ReasoningTalking well-nigh achievement of enlightenment, Kant place two types of caseing public and one-on-one. Public reasoning is being utilize when an individual makes an argument for the p urpose of marking get ahead. On the other hand, demythologized workers who use reason in completing their specific jobs exercise private reasoning as the public need not know active their use of reasoning. Besides, passel who make use of private reasoning moldiness know how to obey otherwise the completion of the task is impossible.Many examples have been cited by Kant in explaining the difference between public and private reasoning. An example is when army men refused to follow commands. If this happens, their group could no longer be considered military. In a different case, a soldier whitethorn follow commands which personal line of credit his personal beliefs but later on will critique what he believes. In this example, he exercises private reasoning in following the commands maculation his public use of reasoning is demonstrated in voicing out his complaints.As Lewis Beck (1959) wroteKant seemed to favor public reasoning over private reasoning as he stated that the publ ic use of ones reason alone can bring about enlightenment among men. The private use of reason, on the other hand, may often be very narrowly restricted without particularly hindering the progress of enlightenment.An example involving clergymen and the case of changing the symbol of the church was provided. Kant described clergymans per editionance of duties as a private use of reason while making use of public reasoning in fulfilling his responsibilities to the public in making progress. He stated, For if he believed he had found such in them, he could not conscientiously discharge the duties of his office he would have to give it up. novice Age or Age of Enlightenment?According to Kant, we do not live in an beginner age, but rather an age of enlightenment. He stressedAs things now stand, much is lacking which prevents men form being, or easily becoming, capable of correctly using their own reason in religious matters with assurance and free from outside direction. But, on the ot her hand, we have clear indications that the field has now been opened wherein men may freely deal with these things and that the obstacles to general enlightenment or the release from self-imposed tutelage are gradually being reduced.His assertion gave a clearer scenery of the difference between an enlightened age and an age of enlightenment. In the former, mountain become religious without clergymen because they would know when to follow rules and when to disobey them. During the age of enlightenment, however, people make progress by utilizing both kinds of reasoning which eventually results in competence or the balance of both public and private use of reason. We must know how to determine when it is right to obey and right to argue. It enables us to become the managers of our own freedom.Strengths and Weaknesses of Kants ArgumentsKant offered several brilliant ideas in his essay. Specifically, his notions about public and private use of reasoning help us assimilate management of our own freedom. And if we know how to live by the rules of reasoning, we will be competent. This later on translates into moving closer to an enlightened age.While on that point are really good points in his work, I disagree with well-nigh of his views. I personally do not approve of the statement that an enlightened individual should be one who is free of having anything done for him. I powerfully believe that man is naturally dependent of other people. We as favorable beings still have to learn from others and must know how to follow rules in the society. It is never wrong to accept the guidance of others as long as we know that it will eventually result to marking personal progress which shall then help in recording societal progress. ReferencesBeck, Lewis. Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. Kant, Immanuel. What is Enlightenment. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1959.Beck, Lewis. Studies in the doctrine of Kany. New York Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1956.

Blood spatter Essay

ancestry splosh is a common mannikin of physical indorse at a remnant scene, and is often of study relevance. It is not a field in which exclusively forensic pathologists feel confident, as in somewhat jurisdictions it is regarded as entirely inside the domain of the forensic scientist and in new(prenominal)s, the detestation scene investigator. It should be reasonably regarded as a sh bed topic, one understood by all players, as each expert has an individual slant on the subject, and brook thence provide separate insights.It is important to avoid evidence clashes. Examination and documentation of telephone circuit patter, including what, where and how much, al depleteds interpretation of the type and form of scarpering, and whitethorn provide a reconstruction of the incident and some surrounding circumstances. The form of report kindled tends to vary with different departments, but commonly is incorporated into the ecumenic scene report. logical argument loss it self is due to injurees of contrast vessels, and this whitethorn be due to natural disease processes or trauma.Typical examples of natural disease-causing problems at detestation scenes include bleed from a varicose skin ulcer, which is at ankle or shin level, and bleeding from lung cancer, which pull ins coughed-up smear. Both of these whitethorn be associated with widespread declivity deposition. Commonly, these kinds of cases argon associated with some degree of cleaning up or self-help, of a type consistent with a solitary spiritedness style. The type of loss is dependent on the kind of countercurrent vessels relate. Veins bring to inception to the heart, operate at low wedge and flow is at a constant rate.A breach defecates an ooze or well out of product line. On the other hand, arteries operate at high pressure and keep a pulsatile flow. This produces a very variable flow rate, and a breach causes a spraying or spurt of declivity. The normal blood pressure peak and trough is 120/80mmHg at rest, but can be as high as 180-200mmHg with strenuous activity or stress, excluding both disease process. Obviously, this level may be expected in risky deaths. As veins and arteries commonly run parallel to each other, both types of vessels may be damaged at once.The size of vessel is also important, as gauzy vessels go away produce little blood, whereas the major vessels can bleed catastrophically. An arbitrary level of 200ml has been defined as the cut-off between a dwarfish and a fully grown account book. The pathologist can rarely deem the volume directly at the scene with both great degree of accuracy. The estimate may squander to be done indirectly by crime scene examiners, such(prenominal) as by weighing areas of soaked carpet, and analyze this with dry areas. Classifications of broth StainsThe appearance and the size of the blood molds depend on the force by which they were created. When a sort of an object comes into direct s ense of touch with the blood, the force by which that object makes contact moves the blood and enhances its speeding. In some fashion the blood mustiness react to this force transfer. hurrying is mensurable in meters per second. There can be an evidence of three forms of blood spatter at a crime scene, high, modal(a) or low blood spatter or a mix combination of these.The foreseeable process of categorizing blood stains was based on the connection between the accelerate of the force pressuring the blood drop or source that administer the indistinguishability and dimension and distance of the resulting bloodstains. The three essential grouping of stain groups which were employ based on the idea that the dimension of the blood stain universe inversely comparative to the power useful to the still blood. Low Velocity family Spatter LVBS (Low Velocity wrinkle Spatters) are stains of blood which are created when the cause of blood is subjected to energy with the speed of up to 5 ft/sec.Major stains calculate normally 4mm in distance or superior. intermediate Velocity Blood Spatter MVIS (Medium Velocity Blood Spatter) are stains of blood which are formed when the cause of blood is subjected to a great power with a speed in between the function of 6 to 25 ft/sec. The distances of the consequential stains are in the mass range of 1 to 3 mm, purge though larger and smaller bloodstains may be at that place. Stains in this group are normally connected with beatings and comprehendbings. High Velocity Blood Spatter HVBS (High Velocity Blood Spatter) are stains of blood formed when the cause of blood is subjected to a power with a speed of more than 100ft/sec.The comprehensiveness of the spatter is mainly less than 1mm, although larger and smaller bloodstains are oft dates experiential within the outline. Bloodstains in this group are usually link up with gun shots and explosions. Other device that formed bloodstains within the mass range of the usual high and medium velocities such as expiratory blood and satellite spatter bloodstains were not valued to the level that misunderstanding might and do occur. Most of the bloodstains forecasters have selected to stop this worldly-minded terms and salmagundi for a more holistic advan cement to bloodstain categorization.The subject that formed the rethinking of the conservative categorization of high-medium-low amphetamine was the diameter of sizes of stain among the high and medium f number group and the understanding that devices other than stabbings, gunfires and beatings often formed stains with the dimension ranges within these groups. The pattern and bloodstains are confidential based on their substantial features of distribution, location, size, niggardliness and shape into inactive stains, splash stains or distorted stains.These are more confidential relation to method that may create stains with that uniqueness with reference to relevant scene, medicinal and case related his tory and facts of the proof. The forecaster than may be able to set up the exact method by which the outline was formed. More Analysis on the three potpourris An abrasion or superficial laceration involves large numbers of very small to small vessels. This produces disseminate velocity from the whole area, and neither a pour nor a spray of blood would be expected. Incision of a superficial artery, such as in the wrist, involves larger vessels, with a small area of origin.This produces mainly a low velocity of blood due to pumping or spurting. A stab of a deep artery, as in the thigh, may mean interest group of a larger deep vessel. Here the forepart of overlying tissues depart interfere with the production of a spray, and the blood exits as a fast pour, usually without spurting. However, there is usually still a clearly pulsatile element. tho again this would be said as a low velocity blood spatter. The size of blood spots relates to the impulse of dispersal. Low velocity blo od spatter such as venous bleeding, volition produce large blood spots.A medium velocity blood spatter, such as produced by the use of a blunt instrument, go away produce finer spots. High velocity blood spatter, as in gunshot injuries for example, will produce a fine spray. This can also be used in interpretation, as in the case of a crewman missing after an on-board explosion. There were several areas of very fine blood spray near the relevant hatch cover, and also on a broken ships railing. This clearly signalised that the dead soul had been hit by the swinging hatch cover, and had broken the railing by force of his carry on with it, during the course of being thrown overboard.Some knowledge of the suffering pattern will produce the best results in interpretation. For example a cane of the neck might be expected to produce arterial spurts from large superficial vessels. A stab of chest could produce a medium flow, but if the stab is small or angulated, producing a degree of sealing, there may be little orthogonal bleeding. For example, multiple heart and aortal stabs with a skewer have been seen to produce only occasional external drops of blood. A stab of the lung may have the combination of direct bleeding from the stab and the expiration of blood mixed with air.Projected bleeding can also occur from mouth and nose pursuance a gunshot wound of the head. During the bleeding process, the blood may be around the injury itself, and be capable of making contact impressions, or may have been projected away from the injury, and no longer be on the torso at all. This blood may be around the body, and situated on bedding, furnishings, walls or carpet. The type of patterning will provide the pathologist with insights of where and how the deceased had locomote. The blood may be on objects at the scene such as a weapon or a vehicle.The position, patterning and extent may indicate which part of the object caused the injury, and in turn, this may indicate the position of the deceased at the time of sustaining this injury. There may be minimal blood present at the scene, or what appears to be an inadequate amount, in feeling of the injuries. This may indicate that this is a secondary scene, and that the primary scene must be searched for elsewhere. Produce a fine spatter of blood at low level, with the last drops producing the greatest effect.This may outline the feet on the floor, and will also be present on the inner borders of the feet and the tops of the feet. The blood on the feet may subsequently be transferred elsewhere. The target surface is of major importance, and the effect is far less on a carpet than it would be on tiles, due to the reduced pool effect. Another significant cyclorama relates to blood which has been depo located from an injury onto a weapon, and is then cast off by the centrifugal force of swinging the weapon again. This may leave blood trails on ceilings or on high walls. There are divers(a) forms throu gh which people can be killed.Listed are the few and the classification of which Velocity Blood stain it belongs to Shootings (Medium and mostly high level Blood Spatter Velocity) Apart from the normal documentation of the scene, it is necessary to consider a number of specific matters. The pathologist must determine if the victim has moved during the course of the shooting, or has shown signs of activity afterwards. This can be done by noting the position of the body, the accessibility of the entry sites in the current body position, the presence of bullets or markings near the exit sites, and blood or tissue spatter patterns.There is usually little back spatter, but there may be considerable forward spatter, especially with more powerful weapons. It is outlay bearing in mind that there may also be significant spatter extending from gas splits in the skin, and this could be at correct angles to the main bullet track. Knife (Medium Velocity Blood Spatter) As mentioned above, the gap of movement has to be considered. The volume of blood coming from an injury will depend on factors such as its type, situation and coverings, but if these are held in mind, then useful nurture can be garner in order to reconstruct the incident.A knife or other sharp weapon is unlikely to cause damage to the scene, except in the most violent incidents, but it may be wiped or cleaned on the victims clothing or on furnishings, leaving a bloody outline. Axe (Mostly Medium Blood Spatter and at time High velocity) Because of the type of injury produced, these scenes tend to be very bloody. As there is a tendency to inflict multiple blows, there may also be evidence of the way in which these injuries were inflicted, as leftover by the spatter patterns. These patterns will frequently include cast-off spatter, as well as medium impulse spatter.There may even be loose fragments of soft tissue, bone or teeth. There possibly damage to the scene, particularly near to the body, due to mis sed hits. Fists and feet (Low velocity Blood Spatter) Assaults by kicking or stamping maybe associated with considerable contamination of the crime scene. This maybe in the form of a low-level blood spatter which may be evident up to a meter or so above ground level. Evidence of the type and position of an former phase of the assault is to be looked for, and blood pools that are separate from the terminal position of the body indicate periods of immobility.The ground surface has to be considered from the focus of view of its being the possible anvil opposite some of the injuries, and thus help to interpret the assault. Footprint patterns may help to provide information as to whether bare or shod feet were used. Explosion (High Velocity Blood Spatter) Explosion scenes may extend from those where only a gram or two of explosive material is involved, to those involving tonnes of material. The pathologists approach will vary accordingly.Where a small quantity of material is involved, the pathologist should cause to assess if there was any movement of the body from its original site to the point at which it is found. Blood and tissue spatter is most worth(predicate) here. The crime scene findings must be correlated with the burns and particulate matter damage later identified at the autopsy. The presence and role of any primary or secondary projectiles must be assessed. The author was involved in the investigation of an explosion on board a ship, where a crewman caused an explosion that blew him overboard.The body was not recovered, but damage to a hatch cover and the ships rail, both with deposition of high-impulse blood spatter and small tissue fragments indicated the extreme nature of the trauma that must have been sustained. fractional body remains may be all that is recovered following a large explosion. As these may be covered with cement dust or other building materials, recognition of these remains at the scene may prove to be difficult, but this task is usually easier for a pathologist than other investigators. Work Cited Page Book entitle The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation.Contributors John Horswell author. Publisher CRC Press. Place of number Boca Raton, FL. Publication Year 2004. Catten Ely (2000) Blood Spatter, What is it? From Suite 101. Retrieved on October 23, 2007, from http//www. suite101. com/article. cfm/crime_stories/34498 Louis L equivalent (2005) Blood spatter interpretation at crime and accident scenes a basic approach. (Focus on Forensics) An article from The FBI Law Enforcement air. Publication The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Magazine/Journal) Book Title Introduction to forensic science & criminalistics (2007) Publishers McGraw-Hill James, Stuart H.(2005) Principles of bloodstain analysis surmise and practice. Publisher CRC Press Blood Spatter (2006) Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Dundee. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 from http//www. dundee. ac. uk/forensicmedicine/notes/Blo odspatter. htm Base Pair (2004), Blood Spatter Pattern Analysis. Retrieved on October 23, 2007, from http//www. tx. ncsu. edu/Science_Olympiad/Coaches_workshop/2007%20Presentations/Blood%20Spatter%20Analysis. doc Blood and Stain Analysis. Retrieved on October 23, 2007, from http//home. iprimus. com. au/ararapaj/craigslea_testbed/Forensic%20Web%20Test%20Site/blood_analysis. htm

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Plant Biotechnology

Define go down ergonomics. utilise employments discuss how it is different from traditional / conventional methods demonstrate facts of life. appoint ergonomics has been defined as the integ trampd engagement of biochemistry, microbiology and plan sciences in-order to procure technological exercise of micro-organisms and cultured tissue cells in the transfer of communicable traits from star place species to other to obtain transgenic full treatments that atomic number 18 of beneficial use to human kind (Lawrence . W 1968).Heldt H and Heldt F (2005) defines plant biotechnology as the art and science to produce a ingredienttically barriered plant by removing elementtic randomness from an organism, manipulating it in a research lab and then transferring it into a plant to change certain of its traits. . correct breeding is the science and art of improving mould plants through the study and application of genetics, agronomy, statistics, plant pathology, entomology , and related sciences (Kuckuck et al 1991).Increased crop yield is the primary pop the doubtfulness of most plant-breeding programs advantages of the hybrids and refreshful varieties developed include adaptation to hot country beas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, bust nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Humans pose been improving crops for yield and other characteristics since the advent of agriculture. Plant biotechnology involves processes such(prenominal) as genetic engineering which involves the direct addition of foreign gene/genes to the genome of an organism.It is a type of genetic modification. Traditional plant breeding in any chemise modifies the genetic composition of plants. It involves techniques such as crossing and selection of new superintendentior genotype combinations. Firstly traditional methods tend to breed plants that finish familiarly mate with each other. This limi ts the new traits that rout out be added to those that already exist in that species. Secondly when plants ar crossed, many traits are modify along with the trait of interest. Whereas genetic engineering, on the other hand, is not backfire by these limitations.It involves the removal of a proper(postnominal) fragment of DNA from cardinal plant or organism and transferring the genes for one of a few traits into another. No crossing is required hence the sexual barrier mingled with species is overcome. It is more than specific in that a single trait bathroom be added to a plant (Bajaj . Y 2001). According to Rost . T. I et al (2006), another difference between traditional plant breeding and plant biotechnology is the number of genes transferred to the offspring in each case. Plants contain approximately 80 000 genes which recombine during sexual hybridization.The offspring may therefore inherit around 1000 new genes as a result of this recombination. This is equivalent to a 0. 0125 % change in the genome. By contrast when a specific gene is transferred into a plant, there is a 0. 0025% change in the genetic information of the plant, it is argued that plant biotechnology provides a more precise approach to crop improvements than sexual hybridization. Plant biotechnology through genetic engineering can cause harmful toxins to be produced by transformed plants, though it is salvage unclear whether it is due to the technique itself on the nature of the foreign gene.The admittance of a gene that it is known to encode a toxin in one organism will induce a similar effect when introduced into a different organism (Raven P. H et al 1992). There has been a case where a transgenic soybean containing a gene from Brazil roughened evoke an allergic reaction in or so people. The gene from Brazil nuts had been well characterized and its product known to cause an allergy, hence extensive laboratory tests. This illustrates why rigorous characterization of a gene is required forward permitting its introduction into a novel species.However there is also the potential of venomous product being produced as a result of conventional methods of crop improvements. For example, in sweet potatoes where vegetative propagation is done, potato varieties with increased feller resistance hurl continually been selected as giving a high crop variety. Those varieties contain high levels of natural pesticides, called glucoalkaloids. However these compounds are ototoxic to animals, so could have harmful effects when eaten.This demonstrates that the nature of the novel bluster should be open to debate rather than the method by which it is introduced (Lawrence . W 1968). The traditional methods of crop improvements are peculiar(a) by the sexual compatibility of the plants mixed whereas with plant biotechnology through genetic engineering any characteristic from any organism of any species can be introduced into a plant. Plant breeders therefore have acc ess to a much wider gene crime syndicate than they have exploitation traditional crossing methods to develop a new variety.For example a rice gene responsible for defense against a disease causing fungus can be transferred to a banana capable to that disease. The intent is to protect the genetically modified banana from that disease and thereby reduce yield loss and number of fungicide applications. Another example is that genes introduced into plants to provide a resistance to the herbicide Round Up was degage from bacteria. An insecticidal toxin used as a crop spray was also extracted from bacteria. genetically modified maize is been grown which expresses this type of proteins.One major difference between traditional plant breeding and plant biotechnology genetic engineering/ modification is that, while extensive restrictions are in place to limit the development and release of genetically modified varieties, those developed by sexual hybridization and mutagenesis are under no restrictions (Raven P. H et al 1992). A major concern surrounding the cultivation of genetically modified crops is the chance of cross pollination between transgenic and related crops.While this is clearly possible for some species, but not all crop species have native gaga relatives with which they are sexually compatible meaning that the possibility of the production of super weeds is not possible. Plants such as carrots are allowed only to rosiness for seed production meaning that cross-pollination during normal commercial cultivation is unlikely. In plant biotechnology plants can be grown in staged medium requiring less land mass to produce large amounts of crops in less time. Although it seems like a great alternative to the earlier methods, it can also be devastating.By growing plants at a faster rate there is a possibility of losing the essential vitamins and nutrients that are important for us. Transgenic plants are still a relatively new field and no cover evidence fo r any of this existing but it is growing concern (Bajaj . Y 2001). Heldt . H and Heldt . F (2005) says, the techniques of traditional breeding are very time-consuming. By making crosses, also a large number of undesired genes are introduced into the genome of the plant. The undesired genes have to be sorted out by back-crossing.Using plant biotechnology which involves the use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism it greatly facilitates/substitutes conventional plant breeding, because one can progress through a breeding program much faster, with smaller populations and without relying entirely on scrutiny for the desired phenotype. RFLP makes use of restriction endonucleases enzymes which recognize and cut specific pedestal sequence in DNA. The cut fragments are separated according to surface by gel electrophoresis and made visible by interbreed the plant DNA fragments with labeled DNA probes.The closer two organisms are related, the more pattern of bands overlap. With conv entional breeding, the pool of available genes and the traits they code for is limited due to sexual incompatibility to other lines of the crop in question and to their wild relatives. This restriction can be overcome by using the methods of genetic engineering, which in principle allow introducing valuable traits coded for by specific genes of any organism (other plants, bacteria, fungi, animals, viruses) into the genome of any plant. According to Rost . T. I et al (1992), transgenes are inserted into the nuclear genome of a plant cell.Recently it has become possible to introduce genes into the genome of chloroplasts and plastids. Transgenic plants have been generated using methods such as agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer, direct DNA transfer, piece bombardment and electroporation. References 1. Bajaj . Y. (2001). Transgenic Crops. Berlin. Springer. 2. Heldt . H and Heldt . F. (2005). Plant Biochemistry. 3rd edition. California. Elsevier. 3. Kuckuck . H Kobabe G. and Wenzel G. (1991). Fundamentals of plant breeding. New York. Springer-Verlag. 4. Lawrence . W. (1968). Plant breeding. London. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. 5. Raven P.H, Evert . R. F and Eichron . S. E. (1992). Biology of Plants. fifth edition. New York. Van Hoffman Press Inc. 6. Rost . T. l. , Barbour . M. G. , Stocking . R. C. and Murphy . T. M. (2006). Plant Biology. 2nd edition. California. Thomson countenance/Cole. CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NAME Tanyaradzwa R Ngara REG NUMBER C1110934J COURSEPlant ergonomics COURSE CODE CUBT 207 PROGRAMBSBIO Assignment Define plant biotechnology. Using examples discuss how it is different from traditional / conventional methods plant breeding 25marks.

Fewer and Fewer People Donate Organs

Organ bounty is an issue that inescapably to be addressed to all pot in all nations. It is a rather contr oversial issue, but an issue that, if understood overcompensately, female genital organ save many lives. Some strongly claim that in the health check checkup use, reed harmonium donation is a very important part. It can save lives for the people who be affected with disease or for those whom only need organ transplant due to the injury or some(prenominal) other causes. correspond to some statistics, because of there are not enough organs available, plug of people around the world die everyday.On the other hand, too-careful consideration leads others to prevent from donating organs because of religious belief, deficiency of education, and aesculapian unsoundness. first of all, there are widespread of religious belief all over the world from China to United Kingdom and from Canada to Chile. Buddhism, Islam, and Taoism use up some benignant of belief in afterl ife and natural process in birth. As the extend, they came up with laws and rules for the deceased. Buddhism, for example, no one is allowed to touch the corpse of the body for some(prenominal) of hours.This may be too late to save the organs that can be used. Moreover, some believe that all things belong to the Earth. A split indicates that every living grows on Earth. It is the Earth that naturalizes our livings. In order to give thanks the Earth of providing a variety of sources, we should all pay back ourselves in return completely which have no missing organs in the body. Since laws, rules, and religious belief are made for the dead, we should respect in who or what they believe.In additional, several countries, generally, such(prenominal) as Taiwan, Africa, or even easily developed countries do not have the opportunity to receive correct information about organ donation and organ transplant. There was a group of undergraduate students handing out questionnaires and doin g interviews about the knowledge of organ donation and transplantation for their research paper in school. Surprisingly, they found out that the result showed approximately 89% of people the student chose are completely overturned and misunderstood whether there are advantages or disadvantages of subsequences to themselves after donating organs.Furthermore, some mistakenly thought the only place in which people can spoil and sell their organ is the black market. Government and hospitals, health care systems, and medical insurance companies should provide correct information about donating organs. After receiving supportive information, people might have different thoughts about organ transplantation and would attempt to have their organs donated. Finally, people who have existing medical illness or condition are prohibited to donate their organs.Donating septic organs and tissues such as tumor and incurable disease such as cancer lead to deadly high risks to the ones who are rec eiving. ghoulish virus will be transmitted from the donor people who hire the organs with donated organs to the body of the patients causing them serious illness or even worse- death. These particularly cells which might be bacterially infected are transplanted and it will be carried throughout patients body. Therefore, most of the patients in hospitals who have medical illness or incurable disease cannot donate organs to others. non only do Doctors or researchers have the right to exam the organ initially but also do the patients need to tell pro what their problems are. In summary, organs are not donated because of the following reasons cultural belief, lack of education, and medical illness. In the essay, I have given out some examples that support my thesis statement which are the belief of afterlife of Buddhisms culture, questionnaire handed out by students for their research paper, and patients who suffer medical illness are not allowed to donate organs respectively.In my op inion, people should get word to ones voice. They have rights not to donate their organs and we have to respect the religious and cultural belief of the minority group of people. On the other hand, others should encourage someone, who suffers no medical illness, to try to contribute their organs to the ones who need them. Moreover, there are no harms for donators to save lives by donating organ after dying. Government and several organizations could provide more information about organ donating to people.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Health Insurance and Medicare

This demo involved an consultation with Gerry Flanagan. She is an agent with Human where she specializes in Medicargon advantage plans. She and I worked to dispirither In Florida, Alabama, and Georgia as Insurance agents. She was my supervisor and a entire friend. During the oppugn, Gerry and discussed the common chord issues that agents and supervisors face In the industry. Licensing, Medic atomic number 18Medical regulations, and how the Affordable consider Act would change Medic atomic number 18. Licensing Is a super Issue, as there Is a lot to do to repay a license. First, a person must complete a land check.This requires a payment and a fingerprinting process. Twenty-four pre-licensing courses must be completed. These classes involve life, accident, health, and annuity education. Once these are completed a order exam must be passed in order to hold a license. Many deal are not aware of all the requirements involved. Gerry gets to mess out those not meeting the basic elements to be an agent. Medicare has changes that occur categoryly, agents stimulate a lot of rules they fuddle to follow. Center for MedicareMedicaid Services (CAMS) does a good job of protecting elders.There are certain ways to handle clients. Agents cannot ring them. We use to do a lot of cold calling when we got leads. universal seniors could get many calls from agents trying to get them to sign up for their plan. This created a lot of frustration and contusion tort seniors. Some other things that are restricted we could not buy them lunch to hear our sales-pitch or fling them a gift tort listening. CAMS makes these rules & If you dont follow them, liquidate a delightful or you could lose your license. Basically, Medicare Is a health Insurance plan you pay Into foregoing to retirement.It has 4 move A, B, C, D. There Is an annual enrollment period, which this year Is 10/15-12/7. Ten thousand Baby Boomers im bust age In everyday between the historic period 2012-2031. This Is an amazingly large amount of people to have in the system. Medicaid is an income-based insurance plan. It can help with fees for all move of Medicare. There are 4. 6 million seniors that qualify for Medicaid. Of those, there are 3. 7 million seniors that have a disability of or so form. every together, there are 8. 3 million seniors that meet the criteria for both Medicare and Medicaid, creation dually eligible.The Affordable Care Act will have a big effect Medicare. It will succeed an out- of-pocket expense at a majuscule of $6700. The new Annual Enrollment Period is now 10/1 5-12/07/2012. It gives a reduction of donuts- location be. There will be an increase in premiums for seniors with higher incomes. CA will provide more managed care than fee for service in health care services. Advisory boards implemented that will attempt to reduce spending per person. Providers will have an Accountable Care Organization where they agree to be more accountable for everyplace-a ll Medicare infirmaries w/ their pristine care physician.Finally, an insufficient care clause where there Is a 1% reduction In payment for excessive admittance of seniors. Most of these separate are to be In effect by 2015. This concluded my Interview with Casey. Being a former agent, I know the importance of existence informed about Medicare. Seniors would wait patiently for me as I worked with clients simply to ask a question. I want to briefly go over Medicare shed some light. Odds are that you will know individual turning 65 this year. Medicare NAS 4 parts D Witt each avian a different function and fees.You must be 65 years old or have a disability. activate A is the infirmary care received as inpatient, a skilled nursing facility, hospice, or home care. No fee is required if you paid into the system prior to retirement, if not $AAA month is the fee currently. With Part B, which is the medical part of Medicare, seniors will pay 104. 90 a month with a $147 allowable. You have a deductible for Part A as well per benefit period, which begins when you are admitted and ends when you are discharged 60 day consecutively. These can be many per year as well. For days 1-60, there is a deductible of $1184.For days 61-90, expect a $296 coinsurance per day per benefit period. For day 91 and over, there is a $592 coinsurance per lifetime reserve days. A senior can have 60 over the scan of their lifetime. These 2 parts are known as Original Medicare. It has three key gaps with redundant expense prescription drugs are not covered, Parts A and B have out of pocket be, and there is no cap on annual out of pocket expenses. Part C is seniors Medicare Advantage or Media-gap policies. These options are extremely important as Original Medicare can get very expensive.Both of these choices qualifying the same benefits as Original Medicare but some offer additional benefits like vision and dental and have a cap on out of pocket expense set at $6700 with Medicare Advanta ge. Media-gap policies are more expensive but have more benefits. They offer that same basic benefits like host, med, but can cover snow% of costs associated with health care. Prices can start as low as $75 a month. Some of the basic benefits are hospitalizing of Part A coinsurance electropositive 365 additional days after Medicare benefits ND.The first three pints of simple eye are covered each year. Hospice is covered through part A coinsurance. Each Media-gap policy has many plans. Plan A-N can be elect depending on the need and can pay up to 100% of coinsurance & deductibles, 50-75% of fees for SIN, provide coverage for foreign travel. Prices can start at $75 a month. There are many plans to choose from. It pays to do some research. Medicare Part D is prescription drug coverage. Seniors must enroll when they turn 65 years old or will face penalty of $31. 17, plus a premium each month.Monthly premiums are based on a seniors income. The yearly deductible is $320. However, some plans have $0 escapements or deductibles. However, this depends on formula and tier of drug. Part D plans can cover costs in the coverage gap, called the Donuts sand trap. So lets talk about the Donuts Hole. All costs do not include a deductible. From $0-$2930 is spent, seniors are in the gap. In there, seniors will receive 52. 5% discount on drugs. This is an out of pocket expense. After seniors spend $4700, they come out of the donuts hole.Then seniors qualify for catastrophic coverage for medicine. They will then pay a small Coplay or coinsurance for remainder of the year for all medication. In summary, do your homework and read all you can to learn about Medicare and the costs associated with it. Start preparing now it is never too early to start. Try to beat updated each year with all the changes. You can check an agents license at this website http//insurance. KY. Gob/Agent/Default. Asps? Manuel=46Diva_id=2 . All information with this presentation was verified through the Me dicare. Gob website.

America’s Women Suffrage Movement in Unit two

In unit two, the Statesn wo hands make history by enduring the longest women political impetus in the States. unmatchable political issue they faced and which led to the course was the denial of a serious to cover to vote which means they had no chastise to vote in general elections. They occupied the traditional position in the club and had no say in the running of the government. They were to be subjective to men and repose stuck in domestic chores. An attempt to defy from this was met with utter hostility. In reaction to these issues, women in America organized groups aimed at garnering for the women arights and recognition in the society.Most ordinary were the women voter turnout deed groups which sought to secure the right for women in America to vote in the general elections. The break throughcome of that was severe opposition twain from the society and the government before the nineteenth renovatement which was veritable(a)tually passed to give women the rig ht to ballot. Many would describe 1877 to 1920 as the age in which America was be shaped into a modern world. This terminus was a fascinating as well as a turbulent one as recent discoveries and innovations kept the Ameri tramp economy advancing. Government institutions received a study facelift and its functions became more specialized.It is during this time that the advancement in labor took a major turn and the capital grew at a high tempo hobby technological advancement and increase in trade and business. The women in time still matte up economically and politically oppressed as they continue being deprived of an opportunity to touch officipate in these exciting developments. Their roles turn closely domestic chores and there were picayune chances of working or even ascertaining some education. This paper will address the issues that women faced and the contour lineation of the women balloting endeavour to campaign for women rights.Analysis The political as w ell as well-disposed issues facing the women could wipe out been said to be oppressive. Their verbalize was irrelevant as far as the society was concerned and therefore they did non have to vote during the general elections (Keller, 2003). Their place was in domestic affairs and had little if any chance to acquire an education. When it came to work, women were discriminated against and they could not take up jobs such(prenominal) as teaching and preaching (Keller, 2003). A few elite women felt that enough was enough and they were determined to end this once and for all.Women rights organic rightfulnesss were set around America to address these issues. The three major disposals that undertook the campaign for women suffrage include the National Women right to vote joining, the American Women right to vote Association and the Congressional junction for Women Suffrage Association (Kerber and De Hart, 2000). The introduction of these organizations marked the beginning of a battleful press that would pillowcaseually see women cast their votes in general elections by 1920. It was not an easy fight and numerous challenges faced the movement from the beginning.Women leadinghip were arrested and subjected to torture in the arms of policemen during demonstrations (Crawford, 2001). Their propositions were constantly rejected by the Senate and men formed anti-suffrage movements to stop the women from campaigning. The National Union Opposed to Women Suffrage was likewise an obstacle to the developments. However, the women finally met their objective when the Senate eventually voted for the nineteenth amendment in 1920 which would pull up stakes women to vote in the general elections (Du Bois, 1999). Background of the women suffrage movementThe birth of the women suffrage movement can be traced back to 1848 during the Seneca Falls convection in refreshing York (Joannou, 1998). However, it was not until 1869 that the send-off women suffrage organization was formed. The Seneca convection had been organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton out of the desire to fight for the rights of women in the American society (Joannou, 1999). The two women had met in the World Anti-slavery Convection where together with separate women were denied a chance to talk. Enraged, the two intractable that there needed to be movement to fight for human rights.The discussions at the convection were centered on the notion that all women and men are created all(prenominal) bit and there is no hindquarters for women to be excluded from the voting process (Evans, 1989). The women suffrage movement had a clear cut objective they think to obtain a right to vote or suffrage for all the women in the join States. As it was during that period up until 1920 women were left out in the nations close making process because they were not allowed to choose the leaders that they cute in the government (Frost-Kappman, 2005).Other objectives of the moveme nt included beity in approach path to education and the right to earn a living through winning up jobs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony became the leading activists in this movement which questioned the subjugation of women both politically and economically yet the state claimed that America was a democratic society (De Bois, 1999). Together with others such as Mary Ann McClintick, Lucretia Mott, Anna Howard, Carrie Catt, Lucy rock n roll and Julia Howe among others, they were determined that this fight would eventually be won (Adams, 2003).As focusing to everydayize these outcries, The National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) was formed in 1869 to campaign against the in thoices to women. American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) was too been established in the same year by Julia Howe and Lucy Stone (Adams, 2003). Each of these organizations worked independently with NWSA fighting for both women rights and women suffrage rights. AWSA on the other hand concentr ated on the voting rights only. These two women groups conducted legion(predicate) campaigns and demonstrations in their bid to pressure the state to amend the constitution and accord women the right to vote.An attempt to pass an amendment to allow women suffrage in 1878 was severely thwarted when the proposal was rejected by the congress (Crawford, 2001). After conducting several negotiations following the realization that they could be better off working together, NWSA and AWSA joined to form NAWSA (National American Women Suffrage). Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Antony preserveed influential leaders in the newly formed organization with Stanton becoming its first president between 1890 and 1892 (Bell, 1911). Susan Anthony became president in 1892 and on her retirement in 1900 she was succeeded by Carrie Chapman Catt.Anna Howard took presidency in 1904 from Catt and was later succeeded by Catt who led the organization again from 1915 to 1920 (Bell, 1911). An organization k straigh t forthn as Womens complaisant Political Union came to the limelight in 1913 formed by Alice Paul, capital of Washington Brown and Lucy Burns (Evans, 1989). Paul had just returned from studying in Britain intended to introduce military tactics such as the ones practiced by the Womens Social Political Union. Members started picketing and demonstrating outside State House which led to many arrests and a seven months imprisonment for Paul (Evans, 1989).She was however released after exit on a hunger strike. All in all, the women suffrage movement went through its ups and downs until the desired objective was finally met. The Determined Fight The women suffrage movement encountered determined resistance as men vowed to do everything assertable to stop the women. They believed that if the women got the right to vote then they would be equal to them a reality they were not ready to accept. The convectional belief was that men should dominate the unexclusive sphere slice womens sphere was confined in the domestic orbit 9Adams, 2003).Women campaigners were treated with hostility by men who opposed this movement. A acceptable example is when women who appeared in the parade that Alice Paul organized to seek subject field gestate for the amendment on Pennsylvania Avenue (Keller, 2003). This was the day before the commencement of President Wilson and thousands of male spectators turned the peaceful parade into a drunken reveller as they tried to break into the marchers ranks. Many were not lucky as they got hurt while trying to escape (Keller, 2003). This kind of incident just goes on to show the difference in culture between now and then.Men were willing to endanger the lives of their sisters and their wives so as to retain the power while women remained the objects of oppression and the direct victims of inequality. From the position given to women in those days, we can infer that culture has evolved over time leading to the recognition of women as vary of the society. Women now have rights equal to those of men as provided for in the constitution. This is what the leaders of AWSA wanted so much even though some like Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton never got to enjoy the fruits of their labor (Joannou, 1998).The Pennsylvania Avenue incident conjugated with others such as jailing of leaders and the force-feeding that they were subjected to in 1917 aroused huge public support from sympathizers and well wishers and is said to have attracted more male supporters for the movement (Adams, 2003). Several women did not support the movement as well and they well-kept that women should keep off from politics since they were too beyond their understanding (Adams, 2003). virtually claimed that such involvement would only serve to undermine their spiritual and object lesson roles.This can probably be as a result of the way women were brought up knowing that their rightful(prenominal) place is in the domestic arena. As a result, deviating f rom this would result in going against the rules of nature and consequently against rightful morality. Josephine Dodge whose husband was an influential New York capitalist is the one who introduced the biggest movement against women suffrage. This was the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage which came into being in 1911 (Kerber and De Hart, 2000). The movement called for women anti-suffragists to make for their men behind the scenes consequently influencing policy.This was a major throwback to the women suffrage movement which aimed at feigning collective support from all women so as to maximize the chances of accomplishing their objectives. The campaign was an uncertain and long-winded process as resistance continued to face the women suffrage movement (Adams, 2003). The effects however were being felt differently in every state such that different states in the US gave women a right to vote at different times during the movement (Evans, 1989). The state of Wyoming had been the first to give voting rights to women in 1869.In the second unit, several other states gained the rights to vote before the government eventually agreed to pass it as a law throughout America. Colorado obtained franchise in 1893 and immediately after, Idaho and doh gave rights in 1896. Women in Washington were enfranchised in 1910 and from this time on to 1918, Kansas, Arizona, Montana, Nevada, Michigan, California and South Dakota among others had given women a right to vote. Victory at last The House of Representatives passed the women suffrage amendment in 1918.This was after President Woodrow Wilson state that America needed to accept women suffrage urgently as a war measure (Keller, 2003). The motion was however rejected by the Senate so that the amendment was defeated yet again. Another attempt in 1919 February failed as well. It was not until June 1919 that the Senate finally bowed to the pressure and the nineteenth amendment was passed (Keller, 2003). This was late r signed into law by the Secretary of State in August 1920 (Adams, 2003). This day marked the liberation of women in America and the women could now participate in the voting process. Significance of the women suffrageThe final outcome of the women suffrage movement was a conquest worth reckoning. The American women had made history in one of the most persistent politically inspired campaign (Cooney, 2009). The women suffrage movement can be said to have had an enormous impact on American politics and the meaning of commonwealth. Women in America could finally lend their voice in government decisions through their votes. The victory of women suffrage laid the basis of equality and democracy as we know them today (Cooney, 2009). The nineteenth amendment advocated for equal rights to vote and that no one would be discriminated on the basis of sexual urge or race.This was a major breakthrough which the present women generation should take a shit dearly. Thanks to the woman suffrage movement, women today can vote and influence major policy decisions of the state. Had there been no women suffrage movement, women would have bear their inferior position in the society and they would have never been part of the democratic society through selecting their leaders. Not only was it a spectacular achievement for the American women but also for women in the world who had not yet secured their rights to vote.The American experience encouraged them to fight on. Examples included United Kingdom, Philippines, Japan, Italy and Switzerland among others where women were allowed to vote in later years. Conclusion The women suffrage is one event that will remain a significant part of history for a long time. This is because it was a major breakthrough both in the countrys democracy and in the position of women in the society. It reflects a determined fight on the part of the women leaders such as Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony who exerted all their efforts into women libe ration.The challenges that the women went through during this period and their willingness to endure is a reflection of the commitment that they had on the movement. NAWSA being the organization that lobbied for the support of women across the country played the role of pressuring the government to amend the constitution to include women as having equal rights to men. Even though not many men supported the women suffrage movement, some were for the signing of the amendment as reflected during the voting done in the House of Representatives which most definitely consisted of men.The Senate also later agreed to side with the motion to support women voters. This change in perspective is a reflection of changes in culture that have occurred in history. From this, the women fraternity could now be included in the government decision making process by electing leaders whom they wanted to represent them. commonwealth was now afforded to everyone in America alike many steps away from the p reviously male dominated society. In unit two, American women made history by enduring the longest women political movement in America.One political issue they faced and which led to the movement was the denial of a right to suffrage which means they had no right to vote in general elections. They occupied the traditional position in the society and had no say in the running of the government. They were to be subjective to men and remain stuck in domestic chores. An attempt to defy from this was met with utter hostility. In chemical reaction to these issues, women in America organized groups aimed at garnering for the women rights and recognition in the society.Most prevailing were the women suffrage movement groups which sought to secure the right for women in America to vote in the general elections. The outcome of that was severe opposition both from the society and the government before the nineteenth amendment which was eventually passed to give women the right to suffrage. W ord Count 2574 References Adams, C. (2003). Womens Suffrage A Primary Source business relationship of the Womens Rights Movement in America. New York The Rosen Publishing Group. Belle S. B. (1911). The Woman Movement in America A Short Account of the Struggle for Equal Rights.Boston, MA A. C. McClure & co. Crawford, E. (2001). The womens suffrage movement a reference guide, 1866-1928. London Rutledge. Cooney, R. (2009). Taking a New Look The Enduring Significance of the American Woman Suffrage Movement. Retrieved on June 6 from http//www. mith2. umd. edu/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/ Vote/enduring-significance. html Dubois, E. C. (1999). Feminism and suffrage the emergence of an independent womens movement in America, 1848-1869. US Cornell University Press. Evans, S. M. (1989). Born for familiarity A History of Women in America.Free Press. Frost-Knapp man, E. (2005). Womens Suffrage in America. U. S Facts on File. Joannou, M. & Purvis, J. (1998). The womens suffrage movement new feminist perspectives Manchester, UK Manchester University Press. Keller, K. T. (2003). The Women Suffrage Movement, 1848-1920. New York coping stone Press. Kerber, L. K. & De Hart, J. (2000). Womens America refocusing the past. Oxford, UK Oxford University Press.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Absolutism in Europe

Many countries in europium experienced hardships in the year 1500s due to a lot of ideologies that lead to reforms and independence of the populace form peasantry. Such reformation also embodied the equality among common masses and the continuous spreading of protection of rights for e real mountain in a snap officular country. As this philosophy continued to flap in atomic number 63, more conflict began to arise by the common pot to be able to claim and fight for that rights they trust. In addition to that, countries wish France, England, and Germany also suffered from struggles due to the political breakdown in their lands.Because of that, many want ways on how to improve the situation in their country and every last(predicate) of these efforts led to the decision of having a single ruler to g everywheren over the land. This also meant the denial of such rights claimed by the common bulk kindred freedom from forced labor and land ownerships. Absolutism is defined as a type of organisation where the full power resides solely in the monarchial rule or the corresponding King of a country. This principle is establish on the heavenly right of a ruler to govern a country and that this person should not be queried or challenged.According to this belief, the kingship was apt(p) to a person by God, therefore, no one should go against the leave of God. With respect to the natural law, the end study still resulted to tyranny. Moreover, while absolutism provides great power on the monarch draw, they still afford to fend for effective relationship with the aristocrats and otherwise nobles in the country. Members of the aristocracy played a major role in maintaining the rule of king in its good condition. These people supported the ruler by leading the armies of the land against rebels and insurgencies.On the contrary, these nobles can also dispute the authority of the single ruler, making its government shaky. France is a good example of an absolute type of government. Under this government, the political power of France was centered on the kingship and all condition over military, taxation and other state affairs is in the hand of the king. However, such control is still fragile because the king should maintain good standing with the other nobles and aristocrats and should maintain a standing army to preserve his rule.With France, King total heat IV laid policies that get on strengthened the monarchial rule over the french territory which in turn, provided benefits on the public. In addition to that, King atomic number 1 also acquired the services of religious ministers to establish an improved management and as a result, many structures were built that further improved the lives of the people. Conversely, rebellions emerged when higher taxation was imposed by the French ministers, and this make the government weaker and its influence limited.The ascent was led by other aristocrats that defied the orders of the king t o collect dues that were beyond the shape taxation. As a result, compromises were made between the two parties to restore repose in France. In countries like Austria and Prussia, absolutism is said to be very effective and was less challenged by wars or rebellions by its citizens and nobles. When the Ottoman imperium attempted to conquer nations like Austria, the nobles joined together that eventually led to the defeat of the Turkish armies. As a result, the authoritarian rule of the manifest leader on that country wasfurther supported by the people of Austria. The same happened in Prussia when wars continued to plagued the nation and the leader of this country emerged to have saved the country over the possible hardships that war defeat great power bring to them. The war also weakened the power of the nobles who antagonize the Prussian government at that time. In Russia, absolutism was developed and can be traced back when Russia then was conquered by the Mongolian army. The M ongol leader made the people of Russia suffer and even imposed huge taxes against the people.The Mongol leader also appointed Russian nobles to do the tax collection conjecture over the Russian cities which eventually turned against them. When the Russian nobles already gained oftentimes resources and support from the populace, they started to revolt against the Mongol rule over their country. When they finally puzzle their enemies, the ruler of Russia justified the need of absolutism in their country to further strengthen the defense of Russia over its enemies. The tsar also improved the structures of the Russian country like the St. Petersburgh construction.The distinctiveness of absolutism that was in eastern part of Europe by the year 1600s was significantly unusual from that of nations like Spain and France in the western sandwich side of the continent. Eastern Europe was able to recover from the story of scarcity and malady in the 1300s in a diverse way. On the other hand, when population levels in the countries in the western part of Europe were small and there was a lack of manual labor in the medieval era, the peasants were able to attain greater liberty from the said limits occurred in the feudalism epoch.Conversely, in Eastern Europe the landlords and the aristocrats were still clever to beseech the peasants on their lives and as a result, weaken their struggle for freedom. A sound hypothesis for that scenario is that this might happened because those rulers in places in the western part of Europe were much more prominent than in the Eastern towns for the reason that of immense commercial revolution that happened in the West. These towns gave a substitute and usually a sanctuary for the masses that were not in their original land.Additionally, monarchies in the western part of the continent frequently seen by the populace to protect them from their enemies who would want to plunder their land. The policies made by these rulers were also for t he ordinary public to be protected from mistreatment of those who are in the noble families. There are one-third known countries with powerful kingdoms and these are Prussia, Austria and Russia. All of these nations proved to their citizens the worth of having a single ruler to oversee the whole kingdom and toe eudaimonia of the entire public.They also provided protections for the people who were vulnerable from their enemies like barbarians and other meandering(a) groups. On the other hand, landlords in the eastern part applied pressures to the peasants to buzz off goods for other nations rather than for their own spending. As such, the populace was not squelched with the rule of their landlords in the east, thus, adding mistrust on the kingship of the rulers in the Eastern Europe.In addition to that, there was limited growth in the population in the Eastern Europe and as a result, nobles easily dominated these lands. The rulers evermore received support from the aristocrats and letting them a liberated life in controlling their own populace. References Absolute Monarchy and Enlightened Absolutism. Retrieved on Feb 25, 2009. Retrieved from Absolutism. Retrieved on Feb 26, 2009. Retrieved from curb of Louis XIV. Retrieved on February 26, 2009. Retrieved from

Police Corruption Essay

patrol subversion is a complex issue. Police decomposition or the abuse of authority by a patrol officer, playing officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a outgrowth problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal personal subject areas segment, a strong bringership organization, and partnership funding are good a few considerations in the prevention of constabulary rapeion. Controlling calumniateion from the partal level requires a strong leadership organization, because depravity advise take place any(prenominal)where from the patrol officer to the chief. The top administrator must make it clear from the start that he and the other members of the subdivision are against any form of corrupt activity, and that it will not be tolerated in any demeanor, shape, or form. So there are ship drive outal to prevent patrol corruption from happening.An investigation of a local report or any guard-related edited in an urban city during any given week would most likely require an article round a police officer that got caught committing some kind of corrupt act. Police corruption has augmentd with the illegal cocaine trade, with officers acting alone or in-groups to steal money from dealers or distribute cocaine themselves. Large groups of corrupt police have been caught in New York, New Orleans, Washington, DC, and Los Angeles, as easy as many other cities. depravation within police departments fall into 2 basic ranks, external corruption and internal corruption. Corruption in policing is usually viewed as the mistreatment of authority by police officer acting formally to fulfill their personal needs or wants. For a corrupt act to occur, three distinct elements of police corruption must be present simultaneously 1) Mishandling of authority, 2) Mishandling of official capacity, and 3) Mishandling of personal attainment (Dantzker, 1995 p 157). It raise be said that power, it is necessarily so tends to corrupt. It is now to be accepted that while there is no drive to assume that policemen as an individual(a) is any less capable to make a mistake than other members of society, people are often shocked when policemen are exposed violating the law.The reason is simple their deviance elicits a special feeling of betrayal. Most studies support the view that corruption is endemic, if not universal, in police departments. The danger of corruption for police is that it may invert the formal goals of the organization and may lead to the use of organizational power to encourage and create crime sort of than to deter it (Sherman 1978 p 31). Police corruption falls into two study categories external corruption, which concerns police contacts with the public and internal corruption, which involves the relationships among policemen within the works of the police department. The external corruption generally consists of one or more of the quest activities 1) Payoffs to the police, by people who essent ially violate non-criminal elements, who fail to comply with taut statutes or city ordinances. 2) Payoffs to the police, by individuals who continually break the law, using miscellaneous methods to earn illegal money. 3) Clean Graft where money is paid to the police for services, or where courtesy discounts are given as a matter of course to the police. Police officers have been involved in activities such as illegal exaction of money and/or narcotics from drug violators. In order for these violators to neutralize arrest, the police officers have accepted bribes, and accepted narcotics, which they turned around and sold.These police know of the violations, and fail to take proper enforcement action. They have entered into personal associations with narcotics criminals and in some cases have used narcotics. They have given false testimonies in court in order to obtain dismissal of the charges against a suspect (Sherman 1978 p 129). A scandal is perceived both as a socially constru cted phenomenon, and as an agent of change that can lead to disk operating system of agreement in the structure of power within organizations. Is there a solution to the police corruption problem? Probably not, because since its beginnings, many aspects of policing have changed, but one thing that has not, is the existence of corruption. Police agencies, in an prove to eliminate corruption have tried everything from increasing salaries, requiring more dressing and education, and developing policies which are intended to focus directly of factors leading to corruption. notwithstanding police departments attempts tocontrol corruption, it still occurs.Regardless of the fact, police corruption cannot just be over looked. Controlling corruption is the only way that we can really limit corruption, because corruption is the byproduct of the individual police officer, and police environmental factors therefore, control must come from not only the police department, but it also must req uire the assistance and support of the community members. If a police administrator does not act strongly with corrective action against any corrupt activity, the message conveyed to other officers within the department would not be that of intimated nature. In addition it may even increase corruption, because officers feel no actions will be taken against them. Another way that police agencies can control its corruption problem starts originally in the academy. Ethical decisions and behavior should be taught. If they fail to, it would make officers unaware of the consequences of corruption and do nothing but encourage it. Finally, many police departments especially large ones should have an Internal Affairs unit, which operates to investigate improper conduct of police departments. These units some-times are run within the department. citeDantzker, Mark L. (1995). Understanding Todays Police.Officials Say Police Corruption is Hard To Stop. Sherman, Lawrence W. (1978)

Sunday, February 24, 2019

bpo management system Essay

1. Introduction1.1 PurposeThis document describes the high take material body for the graph/EORS Intranet r let outine Application and the affair internet symbolizeping Application. The purpose of this physique is to show the upper-level technical come up to brush the requirements delineate in remains requirements specification. This acts to identify the architecture of the corpse and high-level interactions mingled with major system comp binglents.1.2 ObjectivesIdentify and describe the softw be architecture for the system. Providehigh-level undertakees to various technical ch whollyenges. Provide a exact for future development efforts, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as detailed design and coding.1.3 ambitThis high level design encompasses the approach for meeting the requirements as defined in the documents stand for/EORS Intranet defendping System Requirement specification and act Internet Mapping System Requirement Specification.2. System Architecture2.1 OverviewThe adjacent diagram shows the system architecture expenditured by chart subroutine maskings.The system design utilizes weathervane base multi-tier system architecture. The entropy depot is divvy upd at the info tier by the in coiffeionbases. The main business logics atomic number 18 hosted in the 2 maskings in the wind vane host. Because affairping is an atomic number 18a that in that mending ar many requirements related to customer side interactions with the graphic heart and soul of the performance, activity logics are partiti nonpareild found on the most appropriate fix to execute them. Some are located on the leaf node browsers to pull up stakes instantaneous paydback to the exploiter.The general system operation flow involves the following1. selective breeding modifys from various sources such as the chart II CORBA incidents, EORS entropy inputs, eddy and feature editing modules are stored in the in stageionbases.2. When a p urpose diligences programme receives a social functionping ask, it sends the externalise playping genesis take to the ArcIMS use innkeeper. The ArcIMS waiter guesss the correspond entropy from the databases and creates a rendering of the mapping and saves it as a raster encounter register. The mapping natural covering generates HTML pages embedded with the image and sends it to the browser client.3. For the map Intranet mapping client, the application also generates the dynamic gist in VML format, which encodes the doohickey and subject selective cultivation in vector format. This en up to(p)s the application to update the dynamic data without having to re burden the whole map image. This avoids the glowering load up on the map horde when the application scales up.4. When the images and VMLdata arrives at the client browser, the client endangers the map to the drug substance ab drug user. The user flowerpot interact with this data on the client.2.2 SQ L legion and ArcSDEArcSDE from ESRI entrusts managing of geographic information in commercial databases such as SQL waiter, Oracle, DB2 and Informix. ArcSDE provides functionalities to efficiently store and retrieve spacial information utilise spacial indexing mechanisms. ArcSDE provides a set of API and administrative utilities that help manage the spacial data storage. For the graph mapping systems, the combination of ArcSDE and SQL waiter manages the spatial information in the relational database. ArcSDE adds spatial functionalities without disrupting standard SQL database capabilities.2.3 Map host (ArcIMS)ArcIMS includes a fewer comp superstarnts that bequeath play important roles in the map mapping application. The workhorse comp unrivalednt that processes the data and generates maps is the spatial host. Managing the spatial hordes is the ArcIMS Application legion, which monitors for each one spatial waiters activity and brokers map requests to the to the lowe st degree bustling spatial master of ceremonies.The detailed interaction of a map request is as the followingWhen the ASP.Net page receives a map request, it parses it and uses the ActiveX Connector object sit to construct a map request. The connector then sends the map request in ArcXML format to the Application Server. The Application Server then finds the least busy spatial boniface and forwards the map request to it. The spatial server performs the query against the ArcSDE database, retrieves the data and renders them into a raster image file. The location of the file is then sent back to the connector and the ASP.Net page writes it back to the client as HTML page with the image embedded in it.2.4 electronic ne cardinalrk Server (IIS) .Net example and ASP.NetThe network server hosts and publishes glut to the client browser. In the case of the chart mapping applications, most of the content is dynamic content generated by ASP.Net modules. When IIS recognizes a page being anASP.Net module (an aspx extension), it passes the request to the .Net Framework to load the module and handle the request. The ASP.Net pages are then loaded into stock and executed. The .Net Framework provides many utilities such as garbage collection, tracing, just-in-time compilation that manages the public presentation of ASP.Net modules. The ASP.Net page modules are where the chart mapping application logic is coded.The weave server also provides hostage via the Secured Socket Layer (SSL), renting interactions between the users browser and the meshing server to be encrypted when necessary.2.5 certificate2.5.1 Ne dickensrk train SecurityNetwork stage security pull up stakes be managed by the network security sorts the like firew all and RSA secure ID.2.5.2 Secured Socket Layer (SSL)MDOT has a surety server to provide digital certificates for the SSL sort. The server design must confront consistent with the certificate. All links shall use the akin server depict , otherwisewise, if the server is referred using an IP address or a local server name, etc., the user ordain see an alert indicating the certificate is in-consistent with the resource. IIS supports the var. of one folder in the web application requiring SSL while other mint does non. The academic session information remains consistent between SSL portion of the web settle and the non-SSL portion.2.5.3 Enterprise User Enters Read-Only ViewMany of the map mapping functionalities are for display and reviewing data, i.e. a read-only view. The design allows enterprise viewers and CHART users to access the read-only portion of the web site without having to input user name and tidings. This also enables CHART users to reach the viewing area without having to enter their login information again.When system receives a user request to enter the secured area, the system checks whether the underway session has been authenticated. If not, system displays login screen. The user shall enter their CHART user name and password. Upon receipt of the user name and password, the system checks itagainst the CHART II databases user tables. If they are authenticated, the system stores the user information in the session. The session forget be managed in the server until the configured timeout expires. All succeeding requests from the same user session will inherit the same permit information for the user.2.5.4 CHART User Enters Editing AreaOther applications, like future versions of CHART II and CHART Lite, can launch the map editing uniform resource locator via the HTTPS protocol. The user name and password can be sent via https request. The system verifies their authentication information against the CHART II user database using an OLEDB/ODBC partnership. If the authentication information is correct, the system will store this information in the session. The user will be re order to the map page. If the authentication is rejected, the user request will be redirect ed to the login screen to reenter the authentication information.Associating a CHART user with an op- cracker bonbon/default map view area Based on CHART II R1B3 database design, users are not associated with an op-center rather, the user specifies an op-center during logon. In direct to display a default map view area base on an op-center, an external application launching the CHART mapping application will also need to pass in the operation center name to initialize the map to the associated extent.Passing user name and password in URL requestThe mapping site shall have a module that verifies the user name and password, then forward the page to the map page, hence avoiding showing the password on URL address box. At the current time, without the full integration with CHART II and CHART Lite, the system will expect plain text user name and password. In the future, an encryption/decryption algorithms agreed between the systems can be added to obtain higher security.2.5.5 EORS Sec urityCurrently, the EORS security has not been implemented. EORS functions will behard-coded with security configuration.3. Network ConfigurationThe design to a higher place depicts CHART network configuration as the Internal network, a Demilitarization Zone (demilitarized zone) network for hosting the web server and connecting out to the external Internet network.There will be two firewalls, one between the Internet and the DMZ network and another one between the DMZ network and the internal network. The map server and database servers are to be hosted in the internal network for uttermost security. The initial configuration cry (out)s for two physical computers to host the map servers and database servers. In the future, if the system take to scale up, additional physical servers can be added. The Intranet web server can optionally be hosted on the load- fit practical(prenominal) server too.3.1.1 Map Server Load fitThe design achieves load balancing by a combination of Windo ws 2000 Advanced Server Network Load equilibrize (NLB) Service and the ArcIMS Application Server. The system utilizes two physical server computers. The two servers are configured with NLB. NLB works on the TCP/IP level. whatsoever incoming traffic from web server to the virtual server IP address is load balanced between the two application servers by NLB. ArcIMS Application Server operates at the application level, monitoring each spatial servers load and operation. When a spatial server is busy, it directs the map request to idling spatial server(s).Each physical map server hosts one ArcIMS Application Server and two ArcIMS spacial Server instances. An application server failure forces NLB to direct new connections to the remaining application server. When the failed server is recovered, new client connections should once again be shared between the two servers. The two spatial server instances are cross registered to the application servers. As shown in the diagram, Spatial Se rver A1 and A2 are registered to Application Server B and A correspondingly. This arrangement run intos that when a spatial server is down, the application server can stillutilize the spatial server from the other server to serve the map request and the application server wrap up to function. Also, this configuration also allows ArcIMS to load balance at the Spatial Server level as opposed to just the network traffic level, which is what NLB provides. This configuration can withstand an Application Server failure, a Spatial Server failure, a simultaneous Application/Spatial Server failure or ironware failure of one of the physical map servers. Using two map servers with network load balancing should provide high-availability load balanced ArcIMS web site.3.1.2 Database Load matchBy running two SQL Server and ArcSDE instances with NLB to balance the load, the system can achieve high availability at the database server layer. The database servers are completely independent and sha re no hardware components. This type of availability is achievable with the standard edition of SQL Server.The two database servers are rig-up with Transactional replication. One of the two SQL Servers is configured as the newspaper and the other one as a subscriber. All the data modification such as insert, delete and update will be performed on the publisher and changes are replicated to the subscriber. Transactional replication can provide very low rotational latency to Subscribers. Subscribers receiving data using a push subscription usually receive changes from the newspaper publisher within one minute or sooner, provided that the network link and fair to middling processing resources are available (latency of a few seconds can lots be achieved).When the web server and map server requests use the virtual IP address on the load-balanced group of database servers, they are directed to the database server with the least amount of load. If one of the database servers goes down due to hardware failure, NLB detects that this server is down and no longer directs database requests to this machine. The remaining machine handles the database requests and apart from a slight drop in performance the users are unaware that a database server has failed. When the hardware is fixed the offending machine can be brought back online.One boundary exists for this design. It happens when the publisher database is down. In this situation the data updates cannot be committed until the publisher database comes back. But at the same time, all read access from the Internet and Intranet server could still be directed to the secondary server. In the case when the publisher data is going to be down for extended time period, system configuration need to allow system administrator to change the configuration so that the replica will serve as the main database. Compared with clustering solution, this system design provides the maximum database availability and performance benefit.Th e databases that need to be replicated would include1. Background map database.Background map data does not change often. A breeze replication is sufficient for replicating data updates in one database to the other.2. CHART/EORS Spatial DatabaseCHART/EORS spatial database stores CHART and EORS wrench and compositors case information with spatial data. They are dynamically updated throughout the day. Transactional replication will be setup to ensure that data change in one database gets replicated to the other one.3. SDE metadata.In general, the system can continue to provide access of map and data to some(prenominal) the Internet and Intranet users in the case of failure of any one component in the system. The only exception is that when the publisher database is down, the new data cannot be updated into the system. Users will get delayed information.3.1.3 DMZ ConfigurationCHART is currently implementing a Demilitarization Zone (DMZ) network to enhance the network security. This entails creating a separate network for the web server computer(s) and separating it from the internal network with a firewall.In an ideal world, the DMZ would have no physical connection to the internal network. This would require two separate map server setups to serve theInternet and Intranet users. The recommended way to implement is to disallow any access from the DMZ to the internal network, precisely allow access from the internal network to the DMZ. In other words, allow out-bound connections. On each of the ArcIMS server computers, mount a network drive to a shared drive on the sack server. Each ArcIMS spatial server would write the output raster image files to the location on the web server to be delivered to the Internet client browsers.4. Database compositionTo reduce the dependency and operation interference between the spatial data and the attribute data, the EORS spatial database and CHART spatial database will be created as two SQL Server databases. To reduce the performance overhead when joining data between the spatial and attribute data, the EORS spatial database will reside on the same database server(s) as the EORS database.5. Technical Challenges5.1 Map Display MechanismCHART Intranet mapping application requires that changes in event and device data be reflected on all map clients in a near-real-time fashion (within 5 seconds). To do so via the traditional raster map publishing mechanism will result in all clients retrieving updated map every 5 seconds or at least when event/device status update requires a new map to be generated. When there is large number of users of the system, it will result in a high map server load in a concentrated short time period.To resolve this issue, the couch team reviewed various technical approaches and summarizes their usefulnesss and disadvantages as the following5.1.1 Raster (JPEG, GIF or PNG) look-alikeThis is a popular approach that utilizes the basic image display functionality of web browsers . It utilizes the server processing power efficiently. The disadvantages are that the images have limited client side intelligence, leaving most of the computation concentrated on the server. Its capability of handling large number of concurrent map requests is limited. Generally, one map server can support 4-8 requests per second. ForCHARTs situation, when an event changes status, if a new map image needs to be generated, it would be about 40 requests per second (200 users at 5 second update interval). Many servers will be required to support the load.With the license fee involved with using GIF format, we will not use GIF for map publishing. Compared with JPG format, PNG artwork do not have the bleeding effect inherent with the JPEG coalition algorithm. With the map displaying lines rather than continuous tone images, it is such(prenominal) cleaner. PNG also results in a smaller file, which translates into faster download times for client. The only JPG advantage is server side image generation times. It is recommended to utilize PNG for the Intranet application to make grow highest quality images for standardized IE browser while utilizing JPG for the Internet to allow for support of as many browsers as possible. Also, the reduction in image processing time should deliver better web image generation performance.5.1.2 XML Based sender Graphics5.1.2.1 Vector Markup spoken language (VML)VML is a XML based W3C standard in describing vector graphics. Basically, it encodes the vector coordinates of points, lines and polygons in XML format. The support of VML is include in Internet Explorer 5.0 and later. There is no download demand to display VML encoded vector graphics. It also has built-in support for style canvass and scripting. This makes it possible to modify the display properties and positions of the vector graphics using the umberScript on the client-side browser. Using this functionality, we can dynamically update the display of devices and event s. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)Scalable Vector Graphics is another XML-based W3C standard format for vector graphics. Compared with VML, it requires Java or ActiveX based plug-in to be displayed. Also, based on review of the plug-ins (SVG Viewer by Adobe), there is not as much support for scripting as for VML.5.1.3 ArcIMS Java ViewerArcIMS includes a Java Viewer, which provides a Java Applet that can becustomized to a certain extent to display vector encoded GIS data on the client side. It requires a download to the client. The Java Viewer reads vector data from ArcIMS feature server encoded using an ESRI copyrighted compression format, which makes it difficult to implement special features such as WSMS offsetted pass networks because they need to be offset dynamically based on map scale.5.1.4 MapObjects JavaMapObjects Java from ESRI provides a set of Java-based objects for GIS functionalities. It has an extensive set of functionality that can satisfy the requirements. Bu t, it requires a license fee of $100/seat, or equal server-based licensing. It also requires a download to client machine to run it.5.1.5 epitomeBased on the research above, the project team recommends the following design Use raster map for background map display (background data with SHA grid map are often large amount of data, suitable for server side processing) Use XML data format to transport the device and event data from server to browser client. Use JavaScript to create and update the VML vector data elements to display the dynamic layers including all the CHART/EORS devices and events.The diagram above illustrates the map display mechanism1. Map server reads the spatial data from background database and sends the published map image to the client browser to be displayed as background.2. Device and event information is broadcasted from the CHART II system in the form of CORBA events.3. CORBA event listener receives the event broadcast and saves the data into CHART spatia l database.4. CHART/EORS device and event data are published in XML format to the client. Client browser parses the XML into a XML instrument Object Model (DOM) using the XML parser.5. The client browser then recapitulate through the DOM tree structure and create corresponding VML elements based on the XML device and event data. The VML elements are displayed on the top of the background raster map image. 6. At a pre-configured interval, the browser client retrieves update of device and event data from the IIS server in XML format and update the VML displaybased on the updated information.5.2 Automated Refresh of Device and incident DataCHART/EORS device and event information needs to be updated at a pre-configured interval. They should be updated separate from the background map to reduce the load on the map server. The technical approach to achieve this will be to use a hidden skeletal frame to send the request to retrieve updated device and event data and receive the response . The response will package the data in XML file to be parsed into a document object type (DOM) and display the data on map. The request can be to retrieve all data or only retrieve data newer than fail retrieval.When the new device/event is received and it requires changing the display of the device/events, the style assignment for the elements can be changed to update the device and event display. The VML elements will be sent using real-world coordinates (Maryland State Plane 1983). afterward the data has been retrieved to the client side, the VML map layers can be dynamically communicate using the local coordinate space. When user zooms or junk the map, the VML will be projected using the updated coordinates to fit the new map extent without going back to the server to retrieve new data set.5.3 Inter-Frame Client Script SynchronizationThe map page has a few frames and the browser loads them asynchronously. Scripts in one frame may call scripts in another frame that may not have been loaded. The approach to resolve this is to add client-side exception handling and verification routine to ensure that the script is called always after the frame is loaded.5.4 Assigning and Editing lawsuit LocationThe dynamic nature of VML elements in the browser allows adding and modifying VML elements by scripting. When the user clicks or drags the mouse on the map, client-side script manages the transformation of screen coordinates and real-world map coordinates. The coordinates are sent back to the servers secured URL where the information is extracted and saved to the database.5.5 ScalabilityThe CHART mapping application serves not only the Intranet users, but also Internet browser clients. During emergency situations, the load on both the Internet and Intranet servers could get extremely high. The system must be able to scale up to serve large amount of users.The technical approach to solve this issue involves two main facets. As described in the network configurati on section, the system will employ network load balancing and allows adding additional hardware in the future. The system should also be able to utilize the caching feature of IIS and ASP.Net to scale up without significantly enlarge hardware investment. ASP.Net allows caching configuration for individual page modules, such as whether the page is cached and how long it is cached. later on the application is deployed, these caching settings can be configured on the web pages. For example, if it is determined that the Internet mapping can be up to 3 seconds late, by setting caching time to 3 seconds, all requests from the Internet will receive a cached response without creating additional load on the map and database server.5.6 Exception Management and RecoveryCHART II keeps its clients updated via a push model using the CORBA typesetters case Service. The Event Service does not guarantee delivery therefore it is possible for event data to be lost/dropped (although in practice, thi s is rare). To account for this possibility, the CHART Web Event listener will refresh its information about the status of devices and traffic events from CHART II at a configurable interval. Also, each time the Event listener is started, it will retrieve all relevant data from CHART II. Thus, the update model becomes a push model with an occasional pull to be safe.This process will be utilise to recover from the following situations1. The Event attendant was down and did not receive new data from CHART II.2. CHART II CORBA event(s) occasionally dropped while the Event attender is up and running.Another likely scenario is that the CHART II server or service(s) restart. After a typical restart, the CORBA Event Service CORBA objects will berecreated with the same characteristics allowing the Event Listener to continue to automatically receive CHART II CORBA events. As the CHART II services will not be processing events during this time, no events are likely to be missed. Therefor e, the Event Listener does not need to do anything special to handle a CHART II server or service(s) restart.Sometimes CHART II support will require that new (and different) Event Service CORBA objects be created. This world power happen during a CHART II upgrade, for example. In this case, the Event Listener will need to be restarted so that it can pick up the new objects. Since this type of maintenance does not occur often and the Event Listener restarting is fast, the restart can be handled as part of the CHART II upgrade procedures.5.7 Integration with ASP Code in EORS and CHART Web ApplicationThe CHART Intranet Mapping, replacing the existing EORS mapping application, will still be launched as a separate window by a URL string with a few parameters identifying the district, view type, etc. The impact on EORS web application should be limited to modifying the URL links.The current CHART Internet Mapping site uses include control to include site navigation pages from upper lev el CHART web sites pages. When upgrading Internet Mapping to ASP.Net, include statement is no longer used. Instead, a ServerXMLHTTP request can be formulated to request the text from the included ASP page and merge them into the mapping ASP.Net pages. The limitation of this implementation would be that the ASP.Net application couldnt share the session and application variables from the ASP application. Currently, there are only a couple of them, such as database connection string. The ASP.Net mapping application will maintain a separate set of application variables.6. User embrasure Design6.1 Intranet Map Site User Interface DesignHere following is a high-level frame structure for the Intranet mapping site1. AppFrame is the highest-level frame that includes all the child frames. On the top of the page, there will be the form of address frame, which will host theCHART icon. Also inside the title frame will be a group of tabs, such as Traffic, way Weather, Message Sign, etc.2. ToolsF rame hosts the map navigation and other map related tools. The ToolsFrame will also host menu system that allows the user to conduct up data and other detailed information.3. HiddenFrame will be used to submit and receive information from the server.4. ContentFrame is further divided to a map frame on the left and a data frame on the right. The user shall be able rearrange the frame boundary to repay more space to the map or data area. Data frame will display data as well as legend, layer control and other items when needed.5. PromptFrame will display the current tool selected and instructions for user activities.Here is a screen shot of the preliminary user interface design6.2 Internet Map Site User InterfaceThe overall CHART Internet mapping web site design will stay the same as current web site. The site will stay as part of the overall CHART web site by including the CHART navigation menus into the site.The site will not be using frames instead, all elements will be laid out as HTML tables.7. References1. CHART/EORS Intranet Mapping System Requirement Specification 2. CHART Internet Mapping System Requirement Specification3. Security and ArcIMS ESRI whiten Paper4. ArcSDE Configuration and Tuning Guide for Microsoft SQL Server ESRI White Paper 5. ArcIMS 4.0 High-Availability Configuration Testing Using Network Load Balancing ESRI White Paper 6. Vector Markup Language (VML) Specification W3C8. Terms and glossinessArcXML ESRIs map request/response specification in XML format CORBA Common Object Request Broker ArchitectureCSS Cascading Style SheetsDOM document Object ModelESRI Environment System Research InstituteGIS geographic Information SystemGML Geography Markup LanguageNLB Network Load BalancingSSL Secure Socket LayerSVG Scalable Vector GraphicsVML Vector Markup LanguageXML Extensible Markup Language