Friday, March 29, 2019

Alcohol Treatments and Rehabilitation Programs

intoxicant Treatments and Rehabilitation ProgramsMedical intervention for medicine addicts is ploughsh ar of achieving brotherly recipeisation. Choose a drug addiction (e.g. tobacco, inebriantic bever hop on, heroin, amphetamine or marijuana). Explore orders of sermon for this drug addiction within aesculapian establishments and problems go about. What atomic number 18 the most in force(p) methods and what might improve success rates of refilling?During the ancient times alcohol consumption was basically routined for medical purposes. The use of alcohol is popular in many another(prenominal) societies, and its influences differ importantly with consumers. This trend is not barely common in adult population, exactly in any case in adolescents. Although, it is often difficult to differentiate among perfunctory drink ining and alcohol abuse, continuous abuse of alcohol is often influenced by socioeconomic, mental and environmental factors, which brush off be lif e-threatening. Further more, alcohol elicit calculate to potential corporal disabilities and increase risks for social violence.Prolong consumption of alcohol heap have harmful effects on the mental health and otherwise important system in the body of consumers. This essay allow catch different methods of alcohol treatments utilize in alcohol addiction much(prenominal) as drug treatment and non-pharmacological treatment. It will argue that the most efficient treatment is Naltrexone. In addition, it will withal argue that effective behavioural therapies will improve success rate of rehabilitation for alcohol certifieds.In the 19th century, alcohol was popular among the Australians, especially in New entropy Wales, merely during 1980s, alcohol consumption was as low as cardinal Litres per head. On the other hand, it increases to tether Litres per head. Since dayss ago, alcohol in betroth was mainly center on in Australian male beer alcohol addiction culture. Financi al pressures have not been the only influences on drink patterns but as well moral and social changes. As a result to this, many women started consuming alcohol as well and there was drinking culture changes in Australia (National dose Strategy, 2001). At some point, in 20th century high demand on alcohol lead to change in liquor store button up up earlier at six p.m. However, it does not work prohibited as the alcohol dependence addict against this rule. In 1982 alcohol use in Australia was 9.8 Litres per head but it drops to 7.5 per head in 1988 and 1993. The average age group in men that started drinking alcohol is 16 age old to compargond with women. An additional, women of all ages consume a smaller amount of alcohol contrast with men or could be non-drinker. Mostly, women like better to drink wine and men regularly choose to drink beer. Binge drinking to intoxication and ar common in adolescent. It is defined as having more than seven drinks in male and more than five d rinks in female. As a result, binge drink is common between current age group and from community (National Drug Strategy, 2001)There atomic number 18 a physique of ways to treat endurings with alcohol problems. These include pharmacotherapy, psychosocial and motivation treatments. The first treatment in alcohol addiction refers to pharmacotherapy. In this therapy, there atomic number 18 three main drugs that are used in treating alcohol, which include Disulfiram, Naltrexone and methadone hydrochloride (Caputo, Vignoli, Grignaschi, Cibin, Addolorato, Bernardi, 2014). The first, drug that is used in alcohol treatment is called Disulfiram. It is defined as a quaternary ammonium compound. It has been used in treating alcohol dependency for the hold out 60 years (Melo, Lopes, Alves, 2014). Disulfiram has shown positive impacts in uncomplainings with alcohol dependence even through oral medication are taken (Skinner, Lahmek, Pham, Aubin, 2014). In addition, Disulfiram was the first medication that was approval by Food Drug Administration (FDA) (Elbreder, Humerez, Laranjeira, 2010). However, Disulfiram effectiveness depends on the capability to block the consummation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenises, which with alcohol ingestion sharply increases the blood absorption of ethanal according to Zindel Kranzler, (2014). As a consequence, exploitation Disulfiram could cause align effects such(prenominal) as facial flushing,headache and nausea according to Zindel Kranzler, (2014). Furthermore, Melo, Lopes, Alves (2014) produce that alcohol dependent may develop possible reaction after(prenominal) taking Disulfiram for long bourn such as fatigue, alienation and also vomiting. Although this medication is frenquently used to treat alcohol patients, it can also react on the central nervous system, which inhibit dopamine as well as increasing dopamine concentration in the metabolic systems (Elbreder, Humerez, Laranjeira, 2010). Hence, when Disulfiram is us ed appropraitely, it will have positive impact on patients health who have been depending on alohol.Another drug which is used for alcohol treatment is Methadone, which is a synthetic opioid that is used as anti-addiction medication. Methadone is often used for residents with an opioid dependency such as heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, oxymorphone, fentanyl and many more (Caputo, Vignoli, Grignaschi, Cibin, Addolorato, Bernardi, 2014). Methadone helps to stabilise withdrawal signals during detoxification and helps recovering addicts manage their cravings. In addition, methadone is used in alcohol addiction treatment and can either be a short term or a longer term class. It is used to assist the detoxification process, and can help manage symptoms of recovery and gage residents in maintaining sobriety. Dyer White (1997) claim that during the intake of methadone there are general side effects such as insomnia, sweating, painful joints and bones. In addition, it is also claimed that majority of alcohol addicts complain of constipation, dry mouth as well as depression, perhaps collectible to hormonal changes (Dyer White, 1997). According to Petrakis, et al., (2006) patients will also have symptom such as, delirium and anxiety. As a result during the admistration of this medication, patients need to be monitered closely from those symptoms. Thus, methadone is use in alcohol treatment from kiboshping patient from having craving of alcohol and also helps patient to overcome from alcohol.Another, drug that is used to treat patients with alcohol addictions are also treated with Naltrexone. This is a drug that is given to patients who are dependent on alcohol and is safe for psychiatric disorder patients. In addition, Naltrexone can be administered through two methods, which include patients taking through long-acting injection and the other through oral tablets (Elbreder, Humerez, Laranjeira, 2010 Anton, et al., 2011 Galvez, Fernandez, Manzanaro, 20 13). The primitive function of Naltrexone primary is to decrease chances of withdrawal symptoms and the cravings of alcohol (Littleton Zieglgansberger, 2010). Furthermore, naltrexone is more effective for a patient with high craving (Elbreder, Humerez, Laranjeira, 2010). According to Mark, Kranzler and Song (2003) Naltrexone it reduces the addicts intrust for alcohol consumption. Also, Caputo, Vignoli, Grignaschi, Cibin, Addolorato, Bernardi ( 2014) state that side effects can be faced by alcohol dependent while on this medication such as, head-aches, nause and anxiety. Another side effect of this drug include sleep difficulty, toughness and anxiety (Anton, et al., 2011). However, the advantages of using this medication is that, for the duration on this medication treatment, the patient is allowed to consume small amount of alcohol (Anton, et al., 2011). Despite, its side effects, Naltrexone can until now have positve impact on alcohol dependents. Thus, Naltrexone is generall y given to patients to stop the craving for alcohol, because it can be taken through oral or injection method.Apart from pharmacological treatments, there are two non-pharmacological treatments that can assist patients depending on alcohol. These non-pharmacological treatments include behavioural therapy and community-based rehabilitation programs. The first treatment refers to behavioural therapies. For example, a counselling and motivational interviewing with alcohol addicts can influence an important role to assist patients. The advantage of using this therapy is that, it is implemented outside(a) from health institutions, such as primary care, community centre and aim (Kalapatapu, Ho, Cai, Vinogradow, Batki, Mohr, 2014 Feinn, R, Kranzler, 2007). In addition, behavioural therapies are principally successful in prominent self confidence, changes for change, and provide the ability for some people to quit drinking on their own (Feinn, R, Kranzler, 2007). On the other hand, f inancial and organizational resources are generally restricted in alcohol treatment. This means that the treatment is rivet on improving and changing drinking behaviors of alcohol addicts. Also patients, who are staying in countryside, might have difficulties to labor medical treatment due to time-consuming, especially to travel from distances to access the rehabilitation services. Such limitations could deny the patient from being treated. Indeed, there was alternative method to treat alcohol addiction patient via telephone, which might not need to be confronting each other, between the medical staff and client. The result from that treatment, using telephone as a technique to communicate with alcohol patient has shown positive response. In contrast, using telephone to talk to alcohol addiction cannot identify where there the patient is going through any sign and symptom such as depression during alcohol withdrawal (Kalapatapu, Ho, Cai, Vinogradow, Batki, Mohr, 2014). In general , it is a good method to treat patient from alcohol withdrawal without worrying even though the patient is in rural area. The second non-pharmacological treatment involves community-based programs. This treatment focuses on helping alcohol patients from overcoming alcohol habits are through community rehabilitation. It is a treatment utilized to serve patients which have both mental and physical disabilities. For example, a theater of operations was done with 65 participants from State-funded vocational rehabilitation agencies to get three or four days for patients to participate in that study (Sprong, E, D, Pappas, Melissa, 2012). The aim of community rehabilitation was to determine that this course could be effective to contribute and identify the barrier in community rehabilitation. However, from this study, 27 patients disagreed to take part in the survey. There were 23 males and 15 females who participated in this study. During the study, patients are asked to answer few ques tion and what are likely symptoms often they get hold while on alcohol, such as vomiting, hand shaking or sleepless night (Sprong, E, D, Pappas, Melissa, 2012). Unfortunately, this study was unsuccessful because of patients low education background, but by providing some motivational programs and counseling sessions could help achieve the aims of this community-based program (Sprong, E, D, Pappas, Melissa, 2012). Thus, it is one of the treatments in alcohol patient that could help to live normal life.In conclusion, alcohol is an addictive substance and can lead to many social and mental health problems when abused. However, there are various medical treatments and effective social rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction that can symbolize an important role to assist in recovery processes of addicts who are struggle to cope with this problem. Effective alcohol treatments and rehabilitation programs will not only reduce the rate of alcohol dependence successfully, but will also prevent other alcohol-related issues in the society.ReferencesAnton, R. F., Myrick, H., Wright, T. M., Latham, P. K., Baros, A. M., Waid, L. R., Randall, P. K. (2011). Gabapentin Combined with Naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Am J psychiatry, 709-717.C. B. (2000). 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National Institutes of Health, 214-221.Galvez, P. B., Fernandez, L. G., Manzanaro, V. M. (2013). Addressing Unhealthy Alcohol put on In Primary Care. New York Richard Saitz.Hulse, G. K. (2012). Improving clinical outcomes for naltrexone as a management of problem alcohol use. British Journal if Clinical Pharmacology, 632-641.Kalapatapu, R. K., Ho, J., Cai, X., Vinogradow, S., Batki, S. L., Mohr, D. c. (2014). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Depressed Primary Care Patient with Co-Occuring Problematic Alcohol Use Effect of Telephone-Administered vs. Face-to-Face Treatment -A Secondry Analysis. Journal of Psychoactive rugs, 37-41.Littleton, J., Zieglgansberg er, W. (2010). Pharmacological Mechanisms of Naltrexone and Acamprosate in the Prevention of Relapse in Alcohol Dependence. The American Journal on Addictions, 53-61.Mark, T. L., Kranzler, H. R., Song, X. (2003). Understanding US addiction physicians low rate of Naltrexone Prescription. 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