Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Define go down ergonomics. utilise employments discuss how it is different from traditional / conventional methods demonstrate facts of life. appoint ergonomics has been defined as the integ trampd engagement of biochemistry, microbiology and plan sciences in-order to procure technological exercise of micro-organisms and cultured tissue cells in the transfer of communicable traits from star place species to other to obtain transgenic full treatments that atomic number 18 of beneficial use to human kind (Lawrence . W 1968).Heldt H and Heldt F (2005) defines plant biotechnology as the art and science to produce a ingredienttically barriered plant by removing elementtic randomness from an organism, manipulating it in a research lab and then transferring it into a plant to change certain of its traits. . correct breeding is the science and art of improving mould plants through the study and application of genetics, agronomy, statistics, plant pathology, entomology , and related sciences (Kuckuck et al 1991).Increased crop yield is the primary pop the doubtfulness of most plant-breeding programs advantages of the hybrids and refreshful varieties developed include adaptation to hot country beas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, bust nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Humans pose been improving crops for yield and other characteristics since the advent of agriculture. Plant biotechnology involves processes such(prenominal) as genetic engineering which involves the direct addition of foreign gene/genes to the genome of an organism.It is a type of genetic modification. Traditional plant breeding in any chemise modifies the genetic composition of plants. It involves techniques such as crossing and selection of new superintendentior genotype combinations. Firstly traditional methods tend to breed plants that finish familiarly mate with each other. This limi ts the new traits that rout out be added to those that already exist in that species. Secondly when plants ar crossed, many traits are modify along with the trait of interest. Whereas genetic engineering, on the other hand, is not backfire by these limitations.It involves the removal of a proper(postnominal) fragment of DNA from cardinal plant or organism and transferring the genes for one of a few traits into another. No crossing is required hence the sexual barrier mingled with species is overcome. It is more than specific in that a single trait bathroom be added to a plant (Bajaj . Y 2001). According to Rost . T. I et al (2006), another difference between traditional plant breeding and plant biotechnology is the number of genes transferred to the offspring in each case. Plants contain approximately 80 000 genes which recombine during sexual hybridization.The offspring may therefore inherit around 1000 new genes as a result of this recombination. This is equivalent to a 0. 0125 % change in the genome. By contrast when a specific gene is transferred into a plant, there is a 0. 0025% change in the genetic information of the plant, it is argued that plant biotechnology provides a more precise approach to crop improvements than sexual hybridization. Plant biotechnology through genetic engineering can cause harmful toxins to be produced by transformed plants, though it is salvage unclear whether it is due to the technique itself on the nature of the foreign gene.The admittance of a gene that it is known to encode a toxin in one organism will induce a similar effect when introduced into a different organism (Raven P. H et al 1992). There has been a case where a transgenic soybean containing a gene from Brazil roughened evoke an allergic reaction in or so people. The gene from Brazil nuts had been well characterized and its product known to cause an allergy, hence extensive laboratory tests. This illustrates why rigorous characterization of a gene is required forward permitting its introduction into a novel species.However there is also the potential of venomous product being produced as a result of conventional methods of crop improvements. For example, in sweet potatoes where vegetative propagation is done, potato varieties with increased feller resistance hurl continually been selected as giving a high crop variety. Those varieties contain high levels of natural pesticides, called glucoalkaloids. However these compounds are ototoxic to animals, so could have harmful effects when eaten.This demonstrates that the nature of the novel bluster should be open to debate rather than the method by which it is introduced (Lawrence . W 1968). The traditional methods of crop improvements are peculiar(a) by the sexual compatibility of the plants mixed whereas with plant biotechnology through genetic engineering any characteristic from any organism of any species can be introduced into a plant. Plant breeders therefore have acc ess to a much wider gene crime syndicate than they have exploitation traditional crossing methods to develop a new variety.For example a rice gene responsible for defense against a disease causing fungus can be transferred to a banana capable to that disease. The intent is to protect the genetically modified banana from that disease and thereby reduce yield loss and number of fungicide applications. Another example is that genes introduced into plants to provide a resistance to the herbicide Round Up was degage from bacteria. An insecticidal toxin used as a crop spray was also extracted from bacteria. genetically modified maize is been grown which expresses this type of proteins.One major difference between traditional plant breeding and plant biotechnology genetic engineering/ modification is that, while extensive restrictions are in place to limit the development and release of genetically modified varieties, those developed by sexual hybridization and mutagenesis are under no restrictions (Raven P. H et al 1992). A major concern surrounding the cultivation of genetically modified crops is the chance of cross pollination between transgenic and related crops.While this is clearly possible for some species, but not all crop species have native gaga relatives with which they are sexually compatible meaning that the possibility of the production of super weeds is not possible. Plants such as carrots are allowed only to rosiness for seed production meaning that cross-pollination during normal commercial cultivation is unlikely. In plant biotechnology plants can be grown in staged medium requiring less land mass to produce large amounts of crops in less time. Although it seems like a great alternative to the earlier methods, it can also be devastating.By growing plants at a faster rate there is a possibility of losing the essential vitamins and nutrients that are important for us. Transgenic plants are still a relatively new field and no cover evidence fo r any of this existing but it is growing concern (Bajaj . Y 2001). Heldt . H and Heldt . F (2005) says, the techniques of traditional breeding are very time-consuming. By making crosses, also a large number of undesired genes are introduced into the genome of the plant. The undesired genes have to be sorted out by back-crossing.Using plant biotechnology which involves the use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism it greatly facilitates/substitutes conventional plant breeding, because one can progress through a breeding program much faster, with smaller populations and without relying entirely on scrutiny for the desired phenotype. RFLP makes use of restriction endonucleases enzymes which recognize and cut specific pedestal sequence in DNA. The cut fragments are separated according to surface by gel electrophoresis and made visible by interbreed the plant DNA fragments with labeled DNA probes.The closer two organisms are related, the more pattern of bands overlap. With conv entional breeding, the pool of available genes and the traits they code for is limited due to sexual incompatibility to other lines of the crop in question and to their wild relatives. This restriction can be overcome by using the methods of genetic engineering, which in principle allow introducing valuable traits coded for by specific genes of any organism (other plants, bacteria, fungi, animals, viruses) into the genome of any plant. According to Rost . T. I et al (1992), transgenes are inserted into the nuclear genome of a plant cell.Recently it has become possible to introduce genes into the genome of chloroplasts and plastids. Transgenic plants have been generated using methods such as agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer, direct DNA transfer, piece bombardment and electroporation. References 1. Bajaj . Y. (2001). Transgenic Crops. Berlin. Springer. 2. Heldt . H and Heldt . F. (2005). Plant Biochemistry. 3rd edition. California. Elsevier. 3. Kuckuck . H Kobabe G. and Wenzel G. (1991). Fundamentals of plant breeding. New York. Springer-Verlag. 4. Lawrence . W. (1968). Plant breeding. London. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. 5. Raven P.H, Evert . R. F and Eichron . S. E. (1992). Biology of Plants. fifth edition. New York. Van Hoffman Press Inc. 6. Rost . T. l. , Barbour . M. G. , Stocking . R. C. and Murphy . T. M. (2006). Plant Biology. 2nd edition. California. Thomson countenance/Cole. CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NAME Tanyaradzwa R Ngara REG NUMBER C1110934J COURSEPlant ergonomics COURSE CODE CUBT 207 PROGRAMBSBIO Assignment Define plant biotechnology. Using examples discuss how it is different from traditional / conventional methods plant breeding 25marks.