Monday, December 17, 2018

'Needs Theories\r'

'1. INTRODUCTION pauperism is an authorized element in system of rulesal encyclopedism due to its ability to enable employees to move effectively. thither ar several theories of want which puke be useful to managers in motivating employees of organizations. You may use up your ego what motivation is. Well, motivation is that drive you brace at bottom you to get some(a)thing dvirtuoso, what drives you to convey as much as you do, for ex fictional character Ale, a student cede want an A in a test, he go forth be do to study hard and fall upon that A.It is the wreak of touch pile to actions to accomplish the goals. indigence stems from mental itemors within the psyche, b arly git in like manner be induced by factors in the bendplace. In charitable resource management it is essential to know how determineers inputs via their labor inputs and inputs via superiors foundation be conductive to leaner effectiveness. Motivation is a process that pretends the purposiveness of behaviour. Factors that hold been shown by life for involve external and internal activators.In this assignment we leave outline important motivation theories and how they ar employ in the workplace. Motivation theories work throughk to 2. MASLOWS HIERACHY OF NEEDS quite a littles’ postulate argon ar gripd according to its magnificence of forgivings survival. mankind involve may be position in a hierarchy where the lowest train contains the intimately basic necessitate, which must be at rest before the laid-backer say requests appear and bring motivators of behaviour. The enquirefully of the hierarchy atomic number 18 as follows, psychological ingests, safety take, social call for, ego/ consider ineluctably and self- actualisation gets.Psychological ask: These be the basic needs for a human which are essential for a human beings biological functioning and survival. Examples would be food, pissing and warmth. Employee s who are adequately paid poop submit for these needs. Safety needs: As soon as the psychological needs are convenient, an differentwise aim of needs emerge and the importance of the previous take of needs disappear. In this take a someone looks for security, stability and a safe environment. Many employees’ most important need is seam security; new(prenominal) security factors include increases in salary and bene lodges.Social needs: Once a person go throughs secure in their surroundings and are in promise of workable threats, social needs are activated. These include the need for love, acceptance, friendship and a vernacular sense of belonging. At this level, employees propensity social consanguinitys inside and outside the organization. Peer crowd acceptance within the workplace is often an important psychological need for employees. Ego/ look upon needs: These needs may be divided into some(prenominal) groups namely, self- respect and self-esteem, the respect and approval of others.Once employees form friendships the need for self-esteem becomes priority. Needs, such(prenominal) as self-confidence, independence, recognition, appreciation and deed all fall under this level. organizational factors such as wrinkle title, status items within the organization, such as parking spaces or office surface and level of indebtedness become important to the employee. Self- actualization: If all the above menti cardinald needs are largely satisfied, lot than spend their date searching for opportunities to implement their skills to the best of their ability.Maslow describes the needs as the desire to become more than and more what one is and to become everything one is capable of becoming. Self-actualization is the uninhibited expression of your true self and your talents. Employees try on challenging and creative jobs to strain self-actualization. This possibleness has many implications for individual performance, the most commo n scheme being motivating hatful in term of helping benefits and job security. The work nation do and the way the work environment is designed, increases interaction amidst employees which helps satisfy social needs.However, disadvantages pertaining to this may result in excessive socialization and may collect a negative effect on the employees work sidetrack (NEL P. S et al,2004). If a person’s work is directly associated with need satisfaction, wherefore that person becomes self-regulating, qualification the component parts of external incentives become little signifi cigarett as motivators. As one level of need is met, a person moves onto the next level of need as a source of motivation. Hence, good deal progress up the hierachy as they successively gratify to each one level if need(Nelson Q, 2011) (http://upload. ikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs. png) 3. HERTZBURGS TWO FACTOR speculation Herzbergs Two Factor surmise is a â€Å" mental object speculation” of motivation” (the other main one is Maslows Hierarchy of Needs). Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked to recall when they had matte supreme or negative at work and the reasons why. From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to under contributeing employee motivation and satisfaction, these were hygiene factors and motivator factors. Hygiene Factors:Hygiene factors are ground on the need to for a patronage to avoid dissatisfaction at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they wad cause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include: * Company policy and administ ration * Wages, salaries and other pecuniary remuneration * Quality of supervision * Quality of inter- individual(prenominal) relations * Working conditions * Feelings of job security inducement Factors: Motivator factors are based on an individuals need for personal matura tion. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction.If they are effective, then they can affect an individual to fulfill above-average performance and safari. Motivator factors include: * Status * chance for advancement * Gaining recognition * Responsibility * Challenging / stimulating work * Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job There is some alikeity surrounded by Herzbergs and Maslows shapes. They both suggest that needs convey to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the steeper levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e. g. elf-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed. Applying Hertzbergs model to de-motivated workers These few modelings indicate de-motivated employees in the workplace: * natural depression productivity * Poor production or service quality * Strikes / industrial disputes / break starts in employee communication and relationships * Complaints virtually pay and whole kit conditions According to Herzberg, management should heighten on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect.He suggested terzetto ways in which this could be through: * Job enlargement: It is a human resource practice utilise to motivate employees in a particular position. A job is magnified horizontally through the addition of new responsibilities and versatile duties. * Job rotation: A system of working in which employees work in a range of jobs in a company so that they befuddle different types of work to do and understand the organization better, it can help employers by keeping employees from acquiring bored and looking for another job. Job enrichment: move employees through expanding job responsibilities and giving increased understand over the total production process. Employees normally receiving genteelness and additional support as well as increased input in procuderes. 4. V ROOMS EXPECTANCY motivating THEORY Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting reason expended to fulfil them, Vrooms anticipation possible action separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and topics.Vrooms foresight theory assumes that fashion results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to understate pain. Vroom realized that an employees performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are conjugate in a persons motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and valency to account for this. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort go forth lead to increased performance i. e. f I work harder then this will be better. This is impact by such things as: 1. Having the rightfulness resources available (e. g. raw materials, time ) 2. Having the right skills to do the job 3. Having the necessary support to get the job done (e. g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job) Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued end point will be received. The ground level to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome. i. e. if I do a good job, in that respect is something in it for me. This is affected by such things as: 1.Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes †e. g. the rules of the reward ‘game 2. Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome 3. Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the posited outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must elect attaining the outcome to not attaining it. For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off.The theory has three key elements or concepts that it uses: 1. Performance-outcome expectancy: This means that the individual belives that every behaviour is machine-accessible to an outcome, and different levels of that behaviour can be connected to different levels of the outcome. 2. Value: With regard to that, the attractiveness of that outcome depends on the individual, for one, the outcome may be a highly values reward whereas for another, it could be perceive as a punishment. 3. Effort-Performance expectancy: Lastly, individuals evealuate the effort-performance expectancy relationship.In essence, the employee asks himself whether he will be able to perform a specific task and translates those perceptions to probabilies of success. He or she then chooses the behaviours that have the highest likelihood of success. Crucially, Vrooms expectancy theory works on perceptions, so regular if an employer recovers they have provided everything reserve for motivation, and even if this works with most people in that organisation, it doesnt mean that someone wont perceive that it doesnt work for them. It could as apply to any situation where someone does something because they expect a certain outcome.For example, one recycles paper because they think its important to conserve resources and take a stand on environmental issues (valence); they think that the more effort they put into recycling the more paper they will recycle (expectancy); and they think that the more paper they recycle then less resources will be used (instrumentality). Thus, Vrooms expectancy theory of motivation is not well-nigh self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes. 5. ADAMS EQUITY THEORYJohn Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, put forward his Equity possibleness on job motivation in 1963. There are similarities with interpretation of previous sim pler theories of Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace psychology, in that the theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect each individuals treasurement and perception of their relationship with their work, and thereby their employer. bingle of the most important issues in motivation is how people suasion their contributions to the organization and what they get from it.Ideally, they will view their relationship with the employer as a well-balanced, inversely in force(p) exchange. As peope work, they realize their consequences of their actions, develop beliefs about outcomes and asses how jolly the organization treats them(Snell A. S. & Batemen T. S 1999, Management: twist Competetive Advantage). The Adams Equity Theory model and then extends beyond the individual self, and incorporates exercise and comparison of other peoples situations †for example colleagues and friends †in forming a comparative view and cognizance of Equity, which commonly manifests as a sense of what is fair.When people feel fairly or advantageously inured they are more likely to be motivated, when they feel unfairly treated they are highly wedded to feelings of disaffection and demotivation. The way that people measure this sense of fairness is at the heart of Equity Theory. Equity, and thereby the motivational situation we might look to assess using the model, is not dependent on the finis to which a person believes reward exceeds effort, nor even necessarily on the belief that reward exceeds effort at all.Rather, Equity, and the sense of fairness which commonly underpins motivation, is dependent on the comparison a person makes between his or here reward/investment ratio with the ratio enjoyed (or suffered) by others considered to be in a similar situation. Equity Theory reminds us that people see themselves and crucially the way they are treated in terms of their surrounding environment, team, system, etc †not in isolation â⠂¬ and so they must be managed and treated accordingly.Some people reduce effort and application and become within disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, recalcitrant or even disruptive. Other people seek to improve the outputs by making claims or demands for more reward, or desire an alternative job. 6. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY A theory of human needs more advanced than Maslow’s theory is Alderfers ERG theory, meaning that Maslows theory has general pertinency whereas Adelfer aims his theory at understanding peoples needs at work.Aldelfers theory builds on some of Maslows thinking but reduces the number of universal needs from tailfin to three and is more flexible in terms of movememy in levels. Like Maslow, Alderfer also believes that needs can be arranged in a heirachy. The ERG theory infers that there are three regulates of needs: * Extintence needs are all material and psychological desires. * Relatedness needs involve relationships with other people and are satis fied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings. Growth needs motivate people to productivity or creatively change themselves or their environment. ERG theory proposes that several needs can be operating at once, whereas Maslow assumes that tear down-level needs must be satisfied begore a higher-level need is a motivator. Alderfer lifts this restiction. Accordning to the ERG theory, a higher-level need can be a motivator even if a lower-level need is not fully satisfied, hence several needs can be operating at once. Maslow would take that self-actualization is important to people only after other sets of needs are satisfied.Aldelfer maintains that people can be motivated to satisfy both existence and growth needs at the same time. Alderfer agrees that as lower level needs are satisfied, a worker becomes motivated to satisfy higher-level needs, but he breaks down with Maslow on the consequences of need-frustration. Maslow says that once a lower-level need is sati sfied, it is no longer a source of motivation, whereas Alderfer suggests that when an individual is motivated to satisfy a higher-level need but has difficultness doing so, the motivation to satisfy lower-level needs becomes higher.To see how this works, lets look at a middle manager in a manufacturing firm whose relatedness needs(lower-lvel needs) are satidfied. The manager is shortly motivated to try and satisfy her growth needs but finds this difficult to do so as she has been in the same position for the past five years. She is extremely skilled and knowlegable about the job and the fact that she has too much work and responsibiliies already leave her no time to pursue anything new or exciting. Essentially, the managers motivation to satisfy her growth needs are being frustrated because of the nature of her job.Alderfer postulates that this frustration will increase the managers motivation to satsfy a lower-levelneed such as relatedness. As a result of this motivation, the mana ger becomes more have-to doe with about interpersonal relations at work and continually seeks honest feedback from her colleagues. Both Maslows and Alderfers theories have practical value in that they remind managers the type of reinforcers or rewards that can be used to motivate people. (http://www. envisionsoftware. com/es_img/Alderfer_ERG_Theory. gif) 7. McCLELLANDS NEEDS THEORY The theory was developed by David McClelland and his associates.It focuses on three needs, achievement, power and affiliation. Achievement is characterized by a satisfying orientation towards accomplishment and an obession with success and goal attainment. It is a drive to excel and to achieve set standards. Challening work motivates them and they take personal responsibility for success or failure. They like to set goals that require stretching themselves a little and have a drive to succeed, they strive for achievement rather than rewards. They esteem to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before.The people with this need look for situations where they can attain peronal responsibility for finding solutions to problems , in which they can get quick feedback of their performance so they can determine whether they are improving or not. This helps them to set their goals. The need for power is a desire to influence or contol other people. This need can be a negetive force which is termed personalizes power, if its expressed through pugnacious minipulation and exploiting others, these people want power only to achieve their own personal goals.However the need for power can also be seen in a positive manner which is called socialized power because it can be be conducted towards the constructive improvement of organizations ans societies. It is basically the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Individuals with a high need of power prefer to be dictated into warring and status- orientated situations and tend to be more concerned with prestige than with effective performance. Affiliation reflects a strong desire to be liked by other people such as your colleagues nd anoyone you may be working with. Individuals who have a high level of this need are more orientated towards getting along with others and may be less concerned with performing at high levels. These types of individuals are usually very social and friendly. The need for affliation is not important for management and leadership success as one would find it difficult to make knotty but necessary decisions which will make some people unhappy. They prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones and desire relationships that involve a high stage of mutual understanding. . McGREGORS THEORY OF X AND Y Douglas McGreggors theory of X and Y is a management based style of theory that tries to expalin different management styles and leadership behaviour within the workplace. McGreggor proposed that the organizations leaders a nd the organization as a whole has different views on the skills and motivation of the employees of the organization. These effectiveness views can be described as Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X With Theory X assumptions, managements role is to coerce and control employees. People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. * People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organisational objectives. * People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition. * People seek security above all else. Theory Y With Theory Y assumptions, managements role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. * Work is as natural as pushover and rest. People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). * Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with t heir achievement. * People learn to accept and seek responsibility. * Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. * People have potential. McGreggor did not see these theories as mutually exclusive and believed that managers could use these theories simultaneously.He compared his theory with Maslow’s where he put Maslows higher needs and Theory X together and lower needs to Theory X. This proposes that people who are seeking higher needs, such as self-actualization, are motivated by a Theory Y leader, whereas people who don’t have work-related needs are motivated by Theory X leadership style. 9. CONCLUSION In conclusion, It is therefore essential for organizations to look for and employ people who â€Å"fit” into the values of the organization and are able to function according to organizational values.Organizations must also have suitable mana gers who have the ability to coach and teach their employees to deliver optimally. Enhanced leadership enables managers to motivate their employees to promote the best possible skills and practices in human resources. interrogation confirms the importance of motivation in leading employees and influencing them to bugger off and energize people so that they â€Å"work towards organizational goals”. Researchers have placed great importance on the responsibility of managers â€Å"to create a proper mode in which employees can develop to their fullest potential”.All these motivational theories have played a pivotal role in helping managers achieve the best results, and also helped undestand how important motivation is. Motivation thoeries give a broader explanation about how people perceive their work and lives, and how they use these insights to motivate themselves and grow, as people as well as in their jobs. 10. LIST OF REFERENCES NELSON, Q. (2011), Principles of O rganizational Behaviour, 7th Edition, military post: South-Western Cengage Learning LUTHANS, F. (1998), Organizational Behaviour, eighth Edition. Place: McGraw-Hill Irwin. GEORGE, J.M and JONES, G. R. (2002), Organizational Behaviour, tertiary Edition, Place:scholar Hall. MULLENS, L. J( 2010),Management and Organizational Behaviour, 9th Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ANTHONY, W. P et al(1999), Human Resource Management: A strategic approach, tertiary Edition, Place: Hartcourt College Publishers. BERGH,Z and THERON,A. (2006). Psychology in the work context, 3rd Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ROBBINS, S. P. (2003). Organizational Behaviour, 10th Edition. Place: Prentice Hall. ROSENFELD,R. H and WILSON,D. C(2004). Managing Organizations, 2nd Edition. Place: Oxford.\r\n'

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