Saturday, March 2, 2019
Emergent Literacy Support in Early Childhood Education Essay
26 pre schooltime teachers and 8 preschool administrators drawn from 8 preschools in Kasempa and Solwezi districts constituted the sample. A total 680 preschoolers were leave-taking of the classroom environss in which realistic observations were conducted. The info were collected by dint of questionnaires for preschool teachers, intentional to bring preschool teachers familiarity of emerging literacy and classroom consecrates. Questionnaires were likewise administered to preschool administrators and these were designed to capture the schools profile on their teachers, philosophy on literacy financial statement and availability of learn and development materials. For the naturalistic observation of actual classroom sessions, data were collect with the aid of a schoolroom Literacy Checklist. make head steering data were collected victimisation semi-structured follow-up inter mountains to fill in some(prenominal) gaps from questionnaires and observations. The go throu ghings were that all the preschools investigated had low literacy harbour as a result of limited language and literacy opportunities for the children and paucity of learning and prevail materials. Lack of the preschool teachers cargo deck of emerging literacy rendered them unable to fully submit environments and practices that financial backing emerging literacy.INTRODUCTIONBackground The concept emerging literacy was introduced in 1966 by a unsanded Zealand research worker Marie Clay in her doctoral thesis entitled Emergent Reading Behaviour exclusively the limit was coined by William Teale and Elizabeth Sulzby in 1986. The term was used to describe the behaviours seen in fresh children whereby they imitate adults butt jointvasing and opus activities, even though the children cannot actually read and write in the conventional sense. The development of the sudden literacy perspective can be traced from the breeding readiness perspective.In the four decades since Clays introduction of this term, an extensive body of research has expanded the accord of emerging literacy. According to current research, childrens literacy development begins long before they parachute formal instruction in elementary school it begins at relationship and continues through the preschool years even though the activities of immature children whitethorn not seem related to see and writing. former(a) behaviours much(prenominal) as interpreting from pictures and writing with scribbles argon examples of emerging literacy and atomic number 18 an important part of childrens literacy development. With the support of p arents, caregivers, wee childishness educators, and teachers, as well as motion picture to a literacy-rich environment, children successfully progress from emergent to conventional literacy. In separate words their growth from emergent to conventional literacy is influenced by their continuing literacy development, their belowstanding of literacy c oncepts, and the efforts of parents, caregivers, and teachers to promote literacy. It proceeds along a continuum, and children acquire literacy skills in a variety of ways and at different ages.Childrens skills in see and writing develop at the same time and are be rather than sequential. Educators can promote childrens understanding of reading and writing by helping them build literacy intimacy and skills through the use of in use(p) learning activities. As children are moving into conventional literacy, they pass through different secures of development in their efforts to be nonplus successful readers, just as they did at the emergent level. Over the past ten years, the concept of emergent literacy has gradually replaced the notion of reading readiness. Consequently, it has a significant impact on the way the article of faith of literacy in early childhood programmes is approached. The opening of emergent literacy developed from research in the field of operations of c hild development, psychology, education, linguistics, anthropology, and sociology. It has virtually redefined the field of literacy and do educators, teachers, and parents aware that the term reading readiness no endless adequately describes what is happening in the literacy development of young children (Teale, 1986). question conducted on emergent literacy indicates that support to childrens emergent literacy in early childhood education facilitates easy literacy development in children. Parents, caregivers, and teachers need to stop that young children are exposed to literacy-rich environments and receive developmentally inhibit literacy instruction. such environments and experiences cook a profound effect on childrens literacy development by providing opportunities and encouragement for children to become successful readers. gum olibanum a preschool should be an environment that supports the prolongation of emergent literacy. In order for a preschool to promote the endles s emergence of literacy, it must be an environment where there is a superior variety of authentic literacy activities. It must excessively be an environment that affords learners opportunities to acquire in purposeful literacy activities which are distinguishd as valid literacy behaviour.In the Zambian context emergent literacy is a fairly new phenomenon. Its practice is mutualist on what teachers know and believe nearly it and this also is dependent upon the training that preschool teachers undergo. Against the background of emergent literacy, the concern of early childhood educators should be valuing the knowledge children bugger off than with replacing it by highly dubious and minute models of what literacy is and how it functions (Hall, 1989 viii). Little is cognise regarding literacy teaching in preschools in Zambia. This carry, therefore, attempted to find out the achievement to which classroom practices in preschools in Zambia, with special extension service to Ka sempa and Solwezi, support the continuation of emergentliteracy in children.Statement of the problem Although the theory of emergent literacy has been in use for over four decades, it is not known to what extent emergent literacy is appreciated and supported in early childhood education in Zambia. While research has been conducted in different move of the world, there has been no investigation into its practice in Zambias preschools. Thus the problem that was being investigated was that we do not know the extent to which classroom practices in Zambian preschools, and with particular reference to Kasempa and Solwezi, support the continuation of emergent literacy in children.Objectives This test seek to achieve the following objectives (i)To ascertain preschool teachers knowledge of emergent literacy in children.(ii)To establish the extent to which the classroom environment supports the continuation of emergent literacy.(iii)To establish what literacy instruction programme is in place and the extent to which it supports emergent literacy.(iv)To find out teaching and learning materials that are usable in preschools and the extent to which they support emergent literacy.(v)To establish classroom literacy practices that bear in preschools and the extent to which they support emergent literacy.Significance of the try The entailment of this think was premised on the fact that it focused on one vituperative do principal(prenominal) of a function of education namely early childhood education. While a lot of research has been done on the basic and high school sectors of education in Zambia, very little has been done on preschool education. It is indisputable that good early childhood education is a precursor to the other levels of education. This study sought to investigate the extent to which classroom literacy practices in early childhood education in Zambia support the continuation of emergent literacy. Such a study has not been explored before in Zambia . This study, therefore, is significant in that it might earmark valuable data on early childhood teachers knowledge of emergent literacy and the extent to which classroom practices support the continuation of emergent literacy. It is hoped that such data might be useful to policy makers such as the Ministry of Education and preschool curriculum designers. In this way, it might provide data on which future curricula for early childhood educators training can be based. It is also hoped that the study will stimulate go on research into emergent literacy practices in Zambian preschools, which is currently pretermiting.METHODOLOGYResearch design This study was qualitative as the researcher sought to interpret his observations and the respondents views to establish the extent to which practices in the target preschools support the continuation of emergent literacy. However, the study also employed some quantitative elements in the design. The study was also naturalistic because there was no systematic manipulation of any process during observation. instead the researcher observed live classroom practices in the preschools as the teachers and learners went well-nigh with their activities. warning size The sample for the study was drawn from eight preschools in thetwo study areas, namely Kasempa and Solwezi Districts in North-western Province. The sample size comprised 26 preschool teachers and 8 preschool administrators. 680 preschoolers were part of the classroom environments where the naturalistic observations took place. The sample structure for the preschool teachers is presented at a lower place as Table 1 Highest QualificationMalesFemaleTotal naiveCertificateDiplomaPrimaryCertificateTotalsTeachers(Table 1) Sample Structure for Preschool Teachers in the Study Areas 5Sampling techniques Samples were chosen on a non-probability basis on the understanding that respondents would be available, easy to entrance fee and ready to participate in the study. As such and convenient and purposive samplings were used. This is because the researcher pick outed samples according to what was logistically convenient and feasible. Bearing in mind the period in which the study was to be undertaken, the preschools that were selected were those that were not in hard-to-reach areas. This was in canal with Ghosh (2006) who says convenience sampling is used when the universe is not defined and when administrative limitations make it difficult for the researcher to randomly select samples. Since purposive sampling is used to target a group of subjects a researcher believes to be reliable for a study (Kombo and Tromp, 2006), in this study it was used to select the eight schools in the study area. The use of this sampling technique was aimed at ensuring that only well- completed preschools were targeted. entropycollection Three instruments were used to collect data. The Classroom Literacy Checklist was used as a classroom observation instrument. It was us ed to check for classroom practices in terms of literacy-richness of the environment, reading practices, variety of literacy activities, authenticity of literacy activities and teachers physical exertion of childrens knowledge of literacy. It was adapted from other literacy observation checklists such as the KS1 Format and the National message for Learning Disabilities 2004 Literacy Environment Checklist developed by Groover J. Whitehurst (Ph.D.).These observation instruments are designed to assess whether literacy environments in preschools provide a clasp of quality literacy experiences and a print-rich environment which are important factors in the facilitation and support of literacy learning. Two types of questionnaire were used, one for teachers and the other for administrators. The questionnaires for the teachers sought to elicit schooling on their training and knowledge of emergent literacy. The questionnaires for the administrators sought to elicit entropy on the schoo l profile, instructional materials and the schools ethos on literacy development. Questionnaires were disposed on the first day of research at each preschool. The whim was to give respondents three to five days of answering the questionnaire, based on findings from the pilot test. Interviews were conducted with teachers and administrators as follow-ups to help fill in gaps or polish off any matters from 6questionnaires and observations. For the teachers these were done soon after each observation. For administrators these were conducted at least twice in each school, one of which was on the drop dead day of the research at each particular preschool. Data epitome Since this study was mainly qualitative, data analysis (particularly preprocessing) began during the data collection stage. During lesson observations the researcher made class profiles by recording the childrens level, age range and enrolment. The researcher was also doing a dairy on each lesson observed. other thing the researcher did at this stage was to ensure that the data were internally consistent. For example, the researcher would make follow-ups with informants to clarify any contradictions and gaps in the questionnaires or interviews. Data preparation then followed and this included summarizing and organizing the data according to categories. At the terminal stage theresearcher sought to make interpretations of the questionnaire responses, observations and interview responses.FINDINGSThis study sought to find out the extent to which classroom practices in preschools support emergent literacy. The study relied mainly on naturalistic observations of live classroom sessions but this was complemented by questionnaires and follow-up interviews. Below is a discussion of the specific findings, carve up into five sections, each discussing the findings in relation to each of the five objectives of the study. Preschool Teachers acquaintance of Emergent Literacy The study has revealed that none of respondents had ever heard of the term emergent literacy. In spite of this, the findings come also revealed that all the respondents stupefy spy elements of emergent literacy in children when they just enter preschool. The study has further shown that respondents run through high awareness levels of childrens emergent literacy behaviours. However, the study has also revealed that generally, the respondents grasp of the childrens emergent literacy was very poor. One area major area where this was evident was with regard to knowing how to reinforce childrens display of emergent literacy (for 7example if a child got a book and began to dig pages or if a child stood up and began to read around the room).This unmingled disparity between the respondents high awareness of emergent literacy behaviours and their low appreciation of emergent literacy can be attributed to the respondents training. It was clear that preschool teachers are not taught about emergent literacy, hence the respondents did not regard emergent literacy behaviours as a developmental stage in literacy learning. Generally all the respondents tended to subscribe to the reading readiness perspective.In relation to the purpose of the study, these findings suggest that preschool teachers in the study areas cannot provide the necessary support to childrens emergent literacy if they are unwitting of emergent literacy as a developmental stage in childrens literacy learning.Preschool Classroom Environment This study has revealed that the classroom environments in the study areas capture low literacy support. It has also established that the most common aspects of literacy support were the rudiment frieze and month and day names. This effectively means that the environments were not print-rich. The study has further revealed that the preschool teachers had low knowledge levels of how a preschool environment ought to be. In cases where the respondents revealed high knowledge levels, there was a gap between this knowledge and what was obtaining in the classrooms. The findings established that this was due to paucity of resources and having proprietors/managers who were ignorant of preschool education. These findings suggest serious meanings on childrens literacy development. First because preschool teachers and proprietors/managers tended to ask low appreciation of what a preschool environment ought to be, they cannot provide the demand environment that fully supports the continuation of emergent literacy. Secondly, because preschool children in the study areas have little exposure to a literacy-rich environment, they may not advantageously progress from emergent to conventional literacy.Preschool Curriculum This study has revealed that the study areas do not seem to have any clear philosophy regarding literacy instruction. As such the preschools did not have clear literacy instruction programmes. The study has also established that there is no common syllabus for presc hools in Zambia. Preschools were utilise whatever they could lay their hands on. These findings show that it is difficult to measure the schools literacy instruction success when issues of syllabi are vague.Literacy Instruction Materials This study has revealed a paucity of teaching and learning materials in the study areas. The most commonly available instructional materials are flashcards, charts and building blocks. The study has established that there is a overlook of a variety of reading books, workbooks, literacy objects for pretend play, and generally playthings.In view of the paucity of literacy instructional materials in the study areas, there is less support to childrens emergent literacy as children do not have competent interaction with a variety of literacy objects. The other implication is that with the paucity of play things, the children spend less time on play related activities and do more of formal learning. Classroom Literacy Practices This study has revealed that using music is a practice widely employed in all the eight preschools. However, the study has also established that preschool children in the study areas have limited reading experiences. In almost all cases children seldom handle reading books as this is reserved for Reception or Grade 1 levels. This is because teachers do not see this as necessary since the children cannot read in the conventional sense. Further children are rarely read to and hardly engage in share book reading. It has also been found that there are hardly any independent activities for children not working with an adult.More formal learning as opposed play-related learning has been found to be a common practice. The implication of these findings is that preschool teachers in the study areas are not using developmentally appropriate activities to teach literacy to the preschoolers.CONCLUSIONBy analysing the classroom practices, preschool teachers knowledge of emergent literacy and the environments in the st udy areas, this study has established that the practices in the eight preschools do not provide sufficient support for the continuation of emergent literacy. A public figure of factors have militated against high support for emergent literacy. The first factor is the preschool teachers lack of knowledge/appreciation of emergent literacy. This has arisen from the nature of training that preschool teachers undergo in Zambia. Coupled with this is the fact that some of the preschool teachers currently serving in schools have not undergone formal training. In this study almost a 3rd of them were untrained. The other factor is lack of resources to construct appropriate structures forpreschools and furnish them with requisite materials. This has been compounded by the fact that preschool education in Zambia is privately grade and as such the Government has had no stake in it.The triad fact is the very fact thatGovernment has had no stake in preschool education. This has led to lapses i n the registration of preschools and lack of serious and constant monitor of preschools. As such there is no quality assurance in the cookery of preschool education. The results of this study are significant in two main ways the results have indicated the need for capacity-building preschool teachers in the area of emergent literacy. The results have also demonstrated the need for Governments dandy company in preschool education.As regards the need for capacity-building preschool teachers, the study has demonstrated that while preschool teachers may notice emergent literacy behaviours among preschool children, they cannot unwittingly provide the necessary scaffolding to emergent literacy if they do not have sound knowledge of the phenomenon. This, therefore, means that emergent literacy must be part of preschool teachers curriculum. The need for governments keen participation in preschool education arises from the fact that most of the inadequacies noted are a result of lack of s tringent regulation and monitoring of preschool education. pissed regulation will ensure that only individuals/institutions meeting the minimum standards are allowed to run preschools.On the other hand, constant monitoring will ensure that high standards are maintained in preschools. Another key way Government needs to participate in preschool education is through readying of grants or instructional materials. It is commendable that preschools are now falling under the Ministry of Education which has expert personnel to oversee the running of education provision in general and preschool education in particular. There is, however, need to come up with a directorate responsible for preschool education.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI wish to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the many people without whom the demands of this research would not have been met. First I pay tribute to my faculty member supervisor Dr can Simwinga who provided the much needed counsel, guidance and criticisms from the proposal stage right through the completion of this thesis. Thank you for your confidence in me and giving me latitude passim this academic journey. May God continue to lift you in your academic pursuits.I also wish to thank Mr D.C. Nkosha for having inspired my interest in emergent literacy which led to my pursuing this study. I thank lecturers Mr G Tambulukani and Mr S.B. Hirst for do useful comments at various stages of the study all lecturers on the NOMA (Norwegian Masters) Literacy course of instruction for sharpening my academic faculties. Special thanks go to all the participants in Kasempa and Solwezi districts who made it possible for me to undertake the study at no cost. I range my thanks to all my colleagues on the course with whom I worked well. Notable among them are Ms Mary-Grace Musonda, Ms Georgina Njapau and Mr Benson Kamangala.My gratitude will be incomplete without expressing my indebtedness to my married woman for tolerating my academic appetite and for her continued understanding, support and perseverance and remaining a pillar in our home during my long periods of absence. I remain grateful to the girls Tionge and Peggy for enduring my absence and remaining good children while I was away.I am grateful to my employers for granting me paid study leave yet again, without which it would have been impossible to pursue my masters programme. I shall remain unceasingly grateful for the NOMA scholarship granted to me through the University of Zambia.To God be the corona for the great and many things He has done for me.REFERENCESBarton, D., 2007. Literacy An Introduction to the Ecology of indite Language. Oxford Blackwell PublishingBergen, D., 2001. Pretend Play and Young Childrens Development. ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on primary and Early Childhood EducationBredekamp S. (ed.) 1987. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth Through Age 8. Washington, DC NAEYC. Freeman, E.B., an d J.A. Hatch 1989. Emergent Literacy Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Practice. Childhood Education, 66, 21-24.Ghosh B.N., 2006. Scientific Method and Social Research. New Delhi Sterling Publishers.Gunn, B., D. Simmons and E. Kameenui, 1994. Emergent Literacy Synthesis of Research. University of OregonHall, N., 1989. The Emergence of Literacy. London Hodder and Stoughton Harste, J.C., V.A. Woodward and C.L. hit 1984. Language Stories and Literacy Lessons. Portsmouth, NH Heinemann Educational Books.Hiebert, E. H., 1988. The Role of Literacy Experiences in Early Childhood Programs. The wide-eyed School Journal, 89 (2), 161-171.12Hiebert, E. H. and J.M. Papierz, 1990. The Emergent Literacy Construct and Kindergarten and Readiness Books of immoral Reading Series. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5 (3), 317-334.McMahon, R., 1996. Introducing Infants to the Joy of Reading. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 24 (3), 26-29Morrow, L. M., 1990. Preparing the Classroom Environment to Promote L iteracy during Play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5, 537-554.Morrow, L.M. (ed.), 1995. Family Literacy Connections in Schools and Communities. New Brunswick International Reading Association Serpell, R., L. Baker and S. Sonnenschein, 2005. nice Literate in the City The Baltimore Early Childhood Project. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Sonnenschein, S. L. Baker, R. Serpell, D. Scher, S. Fernandez-Fein and K. Munsterman, 1996. Strands of Emergent Literacy and Their Antecedents in theHome Urban Preschoolers Early Literacy Development. National Reading Research Centre Reading Research Report No. 48Teale, W, and E. Sulzby, 1986. Emergent Literacy typography and Reading. Norwood, NJ Ablex Publishing Corporation.Teale, W. H. and E. Sulzby, 1987. Literacy Acquisition in Early Childhood The Roles of gateway and Mediation in Storybook Reading. In D. A. Wagner (ed.), The Future of Literacy in a changing World (pp. 111-130). New York Pergamon Press. Van Kleeck, A., 1990. Emerg ent Literacy Learning about sign before Learning to Read. Topics in Language Disorders, 10 (2), 25-45.Wilson, N and S. McLean, 1994. Questionnaire stick out A Practical Introduction. Newtown Abbey University of Ulster Press.