Monday, March 11, 2019

The Art of public speaking Essay

Chapter 1 oratory in publicPower of Public communicativeiseGreek Pericles one(a) who forms a judgment on any usher alone cannot explain it clearly cleverness as well never had thought at all on the subject Public speak is consistently rated high on employers lists The Tradition of Public Speaking diachronic large number who used speaking effectivelySimilarities and Differences in Public Speaking and DailyConversation SimilaritiesOrganizing your thoughts logicallyTailoring your depicted object to your earshot obese a story for maximum impact- building up your storyAdapting to tender feedbackDifferencesSpeaking to groups is actually highly organizeStrict epoch restrictions or so dont allow for question interruptions (must plan for and anticipate questions that might arise in listeners creative thinker) Public Speaking requires more formal verbiageNo slang jargon bad grammar or curse deliveryHighly structuredPublic Speaking requires a different method acting of delivery Proper posture, no vocalizing fillers for times ( uhh, urm, ehh) and forefend distracting mannerisms (hand talking) and verbal habits growing confidence In your public lecture class40 % of people said public speaking was worst fearEveryone gets nervous at speaking, great loud speaker system unit systems use this to help their speechFocus on transforming nervousness to one of positive nervousness ( controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for their presentation)Tricks to turn nervousness from forbid to positiveGet put through in speaking- the more you do it the les scary it go away bebecause its not novel and threatening Be prepargond- 1- hours for every minute spokenPick topics that argon close to youThink Positively 5 positive thoughts for every negative oneVisualize you speaking wellYou dont looking for as nervous as you thinkPublic Speaking and particular ThinkingCritical Thinking- focused organized thinking near such(prenominal) things as the logical rel ationships among ideas, the with child(p)ness of essay and the difference between circumstance and opinionThe quarrel Communication ProcessSpeakerBe warm for people to be engaged in your speechMessage absorb and intended inwardness that will be actually be communicated delay a narrowed topicBe aware of the message you are sending with your voice, appearance, gestures, facial expressions and eye contact. Dont let your non verbal cues distract from your intended messageChannel- the means by which a message is communicated by harker-person receiving spoken messagesFrame of reference- the total of the listeners knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes Because the speaker and listener will never have the same meaning of a speech itll pass on a different meaning for each of them Feedback- messages sent for listener to speakerInterferencee- anything impeding the communication of the messageExtental- bug outside distracting noises or situationsInternal- distractions cominm g from the inside of a listnerSituation-time and place communication is sack downTaioloring a speech to the place setting of the flusht (graduation, funeral, church)Public Speaking in a Multi cultural fieldLanguage is the biggest barrier betweent difference in shades Enthocentrisim- belief that ones own culture is superiorChapter 2 Ethics and Public SpeakingThe Importance of ethicsGuidelines for ethical speakingMake sure goals are ethically soundJust because your ethical background sacrifices you for an issue someoe who mamkes a descision against you based on their ethics doesnt make them wrong Be fully active for a speechBe prepared because you not only was your time if you speak badly but you waste the individuals in the earshots times as well.Be HonestHiding the truth to protect the vast conjunction isnt unethical but lying to protect yourself is Dont juggle statistics, quote outa context, misrepresenting sources, painting tentative findings as finite, citing unique sit uations as normal representation or substitute innuendo and half-truths for proof suspend Name calling and abusive rowName calling- the use of uninventive labels meant to degrade and dehumanize and silence opposing sides. Using such language is a destructive social force and will also make your audience doubt you inherent speech and message Plagiarism- passing false someone elses work as your own without credit world(a) Plagiarism- copying an entire roll or speech verbatim fuddle Plagiarism- piecing together more than one document and passing of as your own. rump have some transitions but a vast majority is all told copied Incremental Plagiarism- failing to give credit to an author of a citation or paraphrase of ideasWays to stop accidental plagiarism have a bun in the oven note of title of documentGroup/person responsible for the documentDate document was last updatedDate site was accessedGuidelines for ethical listenBe courteous and attentiveAvoid prejudging the speakerMa intain unloosen and open expression of ideasChapter 3 perceive auditory sense is Important hearing- pass close worry to and making sense of what we hear Good listen improves efficient, sales, customer satisfaction and employee morale Effective auditory modality correlates to higher gradesListening and Critical ThinkingTypes of listenersAppreciative listening- listening for pleasure or purposeMusic movies comedyEmpathic listening- listening to provide emotional endure for a speakerFriends, family, psychiatristComprehensive listening- listening to understand the message of a speakerClass room lecture, listening to directionsCritical listening- listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejoicing it gross sales pitch, campaign speeches, sermonsFour Causes of Poor ListeningNot ConcentratingLetting your understanding wander and not focus on what is being saidListening too hardTrying to remember insignificant amounts of information verses the speakers chief(pre nominal) pointsJumping to conclusionsInstead of waiting for answers just assuming the worst and going with itMarking a speakers message as un valuable before even giving them a chance Focusing on delivery and individualized appearanceHow to become a better Listener force back Listening SeriouslyBe an Active ListenerGive your undivided attention to the speaker to genuinely try and understand their point of view urge on distractionsTry anticipate what the speaker might sayReview what the speaker has already saidDont be Diverted by Appearance or DeliverySuspend judgmentUntil you hear the entire speechSet aside your own prejudices, frames of reference and desires to fully instruct what the speaker is trying to get acrossA closed mind is an empty mindFocus your ListeningListen for Main PointsListen for evidenceMatched up with the main(prenominal) points to support themQuestions to ask or so evidenceIs it accurate?Is it runn from objective sources?Is it relevant to the speakers claims ?Is it fit to support the speakers point?Listen for techniqueTake note of any speakers techniques of delivering the speech to better your own speech techniquesDeveloping good note taking skillsFocus on important main pointsThe key word outline- outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting(a) evidence in rough outline formChapter 4 openhanded Your First SpeechPreparing Your SpeechDeveloping your SpeechFocusing Your exitDont try and cover everythingStick to the time qualifyDeveloping Your melodic themeBe creativeOnly use learning ability if it comes natural and doesnt offend any oneOrganizing the Speech enteringGrab the interests of the audienceOrient audience with subject matter of speechBodyOrganize either chronologically or topically consumption effective transitionsLimit and focus number of main pointsConclusion unite back to intro without restatingSignal that you are concludingEnd stronglyDelivering your SpeechSpeaking Extemporaneously (appears convers ational)A hybrid between penning the whole speech and writing nothing Uses a brief structured outline but uses spontaneity to help fill in the gapsRehearsing the SpeechPresenting the SpeechStartingRelaxed natural postureLook confident arrange your feet keep natural small gesturesEye contactVery important and will impress audienceVoiceUse inflections dont go over bored dont sound monotonicProjection is keySLOW DOWNChapter 5 Selecting a Topic and a PurposeChoosing a TopicTopics you know a cluster aboutDraws from your own experiences and knowledgeThink unusual and unique to youTopics you insufficiency to know more aboutSomething you are interested in but have little knowledge in without researchSomething you have very strong opinions inBrain StormingPersonal InventoryWrite everything about you( hobbies, experiences, exchangeables, opinions, everything) and decide where to go from thereClusteringMake nine lists of about 4-5 entries (people places things events processes concepts na tural phemonoms problems and plans) From that big list pick 3-4 entries that interest you and free- associate those out until you get aunique interesting speech idea profits SearchScan an online web site based encyclopedia like thing for possible topicsdetermine the General PurposeTo informperforming like a teacher giving a lectureTo bowActing like a partisan or advocateDetermining the limited PurposeNarrow down into 1 sentenceTips for formulating the Specific purpose statementWrite the Purpose as a apprehend sentenceExpress your purpose as a statement, not as a questionAvoid Figurative LanguageLimit to one ideaMake sure purpose isnt vague/ world(a)Phrasing the Central IdeaChapter 6 Analyzing the AudienceAudience-CenterednessImportant questionsWho am I speaking toWhat do I want them to know/ remember/or do as a result of my speechWhat is the nearly effective way to compose my speech to get this aim Your classmates as an audienceThe psychology of audiencesPeople are egocentric and only plow about what they are going to get from a speech Your audience will only grasp concepts in their frame of referencedemographic audience analysisAgeEach generation has similar general values and experience that shape them differently from the rest Gender custody and woman are not alike in their beliefs so take account of that ReligionSexual OrientationBe inclusive and avoid derogatory terms like lifestyle and homosexual Race, ethnic and culturalBackgroundsGroup MembershipsBASICALLY BE GENERAL AF AND DONT tread ON ANYONES TOES EVER BCZ PEOPLE ARE SENSITIVE Dont try to fully change their viewpoints just open their minds Situational audience analysis-audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as size physical setting and the proneness of the audience to the speaker, topic, and occasion size of itLarger=more formalSize effects..LanguageChoice of appealsVisual aidsPhysical setting craving toward the topicThings that effect the likelihood your audience will be beguile Interest association and interest goes hand in handKnowledgeAttitude inclining toward the speakerTalk about things you are an apt on and definitely stay away from things you cant relate toDisposition toward the occasionDont go against the norm of typical speeches acknowledge at such occasionsGetting information about the audienceAdapting to the audienceChapter 7 Gathering MaterialsUsing your own knowledge and experienceDoing library researchResources you should useLibrariansCatalogueReference booksEncyclopediasYearbooksQuotation books biographical aidsNewspaper and periodical databasesAcademic databases

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