Saturday, February 23, 2019
Compare Two Deontological Theories Essay
Deon means duty in ancient classical and a deontological speculation is concerned with the morality of an make a motion quite an than its consequences (or the fountain/intention behind the play). Kants hypothesis of categorical imperatives (I ought to do X rather than a hypothetical if I want to achieve X then I should do Y) consists of three main principles. The first of these is the ecumenic right which states that you must only act on the maxim (principle) when you puke at the same time will it to be semen a everyday law. This means that you must be content that if everybody took the same action as you chose in similar situations, it would remain a moral action. The second of his principles asks you to act in a way that treats others as an end in themselves rather than a means to an end. This relates to Jesus teaching to Do to others what you would have them do to you (Matthew 712) and judges humans should non use other humans to exculpate something for themselves, a s we would not like to be treated in this way.The final exam categorical imperative is the Kingdom of Morals which says that we should always act as though we were the legislators for the kingdom of morals we are in charge of what is moderately and just. Kant placed great faith on human worlds as macrocosm suitable to work ration anyy to such a conclusion and act according to principles. This contrasts with the Natural Moral Law possibility which claims that we must find oneself the think God has learn for us and follow this path whence our own personal beliefs are irrelevant. Natural Moral Law was coined by Thomas doubting Thomas (influenced by Aristotles idea of the final find) and the theory states that every action must work to achieve its purpose every action against it is immoral. According to the theory natural law is neighborly through the natural effect of the world and is unchanging. It is arguable that part of the theory is teleological as it is concerned wi th our end by trying to fulfil our God-given purpose. some(prenominal) Aquinas and Kant agree that our morals are absolute, a priori truths, however Kant believes that our rationality will lead us to these truths whilst Aquinas has set primary and secondary precepts which he believes humans should follow. His primary precepts are to self- hold and preserve the innocent, reproduce, learn, order society and worship God. These are absolutistic as he believes all societies should share these determine. He believes that these are universal and so he is fulfilling Kants first imperative. However the theories, when applied work very differently.An caseful of this is the case of abortion, a girl that is thirteen years old gets plundered and becomes big(predicate) she push asidenot care for the child and feels like she would be wrong in keeping it. According to Kants theory she would not be able to abort as she could not will every woman who became pregnant to abort their child, if the y did then the human race would not survive, making this a contradiction of the Laws of Nature. Kant in addition argued that all humans have immanent worth and therefore by aborting so that she has an easier life the girl is treating the foetus as a means to an end. As for natural law, abortion goes against ii of Aquinas primary precepts, largely the precept of reproduction.But to a fault preservation of the innocent suggests that issues such as euthanasia and abortion would not be permitted. The only acceptance to abortion in the natural law theory would be if the mothers womb had to be aloof to save her life consequently aborting the foetus (this is the doctrine of the double effect). Both Aquinas and Kant assume God, Kant says that we must presuppose God, immortality and freedom in order for his theory to function whilst Aquinas believes that God gave us the ability to reason to find our morals which God set. Whilst on surface level they pop out similar theories, both bein g absolutist and deontological, when applied to ethical decisions they normally counteract each other with the viewpoint given.Assess the strengths & weaknesses of one of these theories (9 Marks)An manifest task for the natural moral law theory is that it provides us with legalistic morality, because it is absolutist it means that it does not accommodate for individual circumstances. An example of this is a trans versed(prenominal) couple. According to the theory, the purpose of all sexual acts is to reproduce any sexual act which does not fulfil this purpose is immoral. We can see that we are biologically set up to reproduce in this way, and so Aquinas believes that masturbation, contraception and homosexual intercourse are all immoral because they do not perform the function that they are destined for. However the concomitant that it is an absolutist theory also has its advantages it is a source of clear prises and moral certainty, it would be very easy to follow, without co nsidering the complexity of circumstances or consequences.Its focus on reason and universalism also helps the simplicity of the theory and can help it to transcend over a variety of cultures and religions. The only problem with it being a religious theory rather than a unsanctified one is that the primary precept of worshipping God will not come naturally to those who do not believe in the Christian God, or to atheists/agnostics. The fact that Aquinas maintains that the absolute laws come from God and that we ought to obey them may lead him into the trap of the naturalistic fallacy obeying God is a value judgement and therefore he is turning and is into an ought.However an advantage is that the theorys emphasis on the purpose of humanity gives people a structure and meaning in their lives, it is humanistic in its assertion that we all have intrinsic worth. Overall I believe that the weaknesses outweigh the strengths of this theory it fails in its precepts which determine how peo ple should live people do not all hold the same values and therefore it is presumptuous to say that our morals were given by God and we all share them. It is also interesting that Aquinas himself went against his primary precept of reproduction by being a celibate priest.